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“Women’s Liberation” and the Equal Rights Amendment

June Melby Benowitz

in Challenge and Change: Right-Wing Women, Grassroots Activism, and the Baby Boom Generation

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780813061221
eISBN:
9780813051437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813061221.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter begins with a brief history of the women’s equal rights movement, and then explores women’s responses to the issue during the 1960s and 1970s. Most of the women examined here were ... More


 Morality Politics

David Domke and Kevin Coe

in The God Strategy: How Religion Became a Political Weapon in America

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195326413
eISBN:
9780199870431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326413.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter focuses on the fourth and final religious signal: engaging in morality politics. Morality politics is an approach that elevates political issues into symbolic, moral battles. The ... More


Defining Equality: Fairness and Feminism

Anya Jabour

in Sophonisba Breckinridge: Championing Women's Activism in Modern America

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780252042676
eISBN:
9780252051524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252042676.003.0007
Subject:
History, Social History

Chapter 6 explores the “equality versus difference” debate--a defining feature of feminism in modern America--through the lens of Breckinridge’s work in both the national suffrage organization, the ... More


Different versus Equal: The 1920s

Nancy Woloch

in A Class by Herself: Protective Laws for Women Workers, 1890s-1990s

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691002590
eISBN:
9781400866366
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691002590.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter revisits Adkins and considers the feud over protective laws that arose in the women's movement in the 1920s. The clash between friends and foes of the Equal Rights Amendment—and over the ... More


The Battle over the ERA

Erin M. Kempker

in Big Sister: Feminism, Conservatism, and Conspiracy in the Heartland

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780252041976
eISBN:
9780252050701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252041976.003.0004
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Chapter 3 zeros in on Indiana to investigate how conservativism infused with one-world conspiracism developed there and affected feminist goals like the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Feminism was ... More


No One Home to Answer the Phone

Lily Geismer

in Don't Blame Us: Suburban Liberals and the Transformation of the Democratic Party

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157238
eISBN:
9781400852420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157238.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter looks at the growth of suburban feminism as a means to consider the persistence of certain elements of suburban liberal activism and ideology in a changed political and economic climate. ... More


After Suffrage Comes Equal Rights?: ERA as the Next Logical Step

Tracey Jean Boisseau and Tracy A. Thomas

in 100 Years of the Nineteenth Amendment: An Appraisal of Women's Political Activism

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780190265144
eISBN:
9780190265175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190265144.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics, Democratization

A politicized culture and century-long debate over women’s nature and role may turn out to be the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)’s principal contribution to American feminism. Despite perceptions that ... More


Left Feminism, 1947–1964

Judith N. McArthur and Harold L. Smith

in Minnie Fisher Cunningham: A Suffragist's Life in Politics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195304862
eISBN:
9780199871537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304862.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Despite the perception that the national women's movement was moribund, a promising Left Feminist movement was emerging when World War II ended. Cunningham was a leader of this movement in Texas, ... More


Defining Equality

Paula A. Monopoli

in Constitutional Orphan: Gender Equality and the Nineteenth Amendment

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780190092795
eISBN:
9780190092825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190092795.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Chapter 7 describes how class intersected with the Nineteenth Amendment, in the context of the United State Supreme Court’s decision in Adkins v. Children’s Hospital and the divisions over a proposed ... More


Gender Equality

Serena Mayeri, Ryan Brown, Nathaniel Persily, and Son Ho Kim

in Public Opinion and Constitutional Controversy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195329414
eISBN:
9780199851720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329414.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The last four decades have seen significant changes in women's economic and political participation and in the degree to which gender definitively restricts women's opportunities in the workplace and ... More


The Grassroots Campaign to Save the Family

Daniel K. Williams

in God's Own Party: The Making of the Christian Right

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195340846
eISBN:
9780199867141
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340846.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Even without encouragement from Republican politicians, Christian activists in the mid-1970s launched campaigns against cultural liberalism, uniting evangelicals with conservative Catholics and ... More


We Gather Together

Neil J. Young

in We Gather Together: The Religious Right and the Problem of Interfaith Politics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199738984
eISBN:
9780190262341
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738984.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The 1970s witnessed the explosive growth of conservative churches, culminating with 1976 being named “The Year of the Evangelical.” Evangelicalism’s vibrancy and visibility also exposed divisions ... More


Liberal Feminism and the Reshaping of the New Deal Order

Susan M. Hartmann

in Making Sense of American Liberalism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252036866
eISBN:
9780252093982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252036866.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter addresses the view that liberals have failed to marry the demands of identity- and class-based politics. It argues that in the 1970s, liberals built a powerful alliance between feminists ... More


After Suffrage: An Uncharted Path

Maurine Beasley

in Front Pages, Front Lines: Media and the Fight for Women's Suffrage

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780252043109
eISBN:
9780252051982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252043109.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

After gaining the vote in 1920, suffragists faced a new quandary—to attempt to enter the existing male power structure or focus on the broader cause of advancing women by upholding traditional ... More


The Architecture of Constitutional Amendment

Richard Albert

in Constitutional Amendments: Making, Breaking, and Changing Constitutions

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780190640484
eISBN:
9780190640514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190640484.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law

Constitutional amendment rules were once very simple in their design. A constitution codified a one-size-fits-all procedure for amendments to any part of the constitution, and that was it. Today, ... More


Equal Rights Amendment

Anna R. Hayes

in Without Precedent: The Life of Susie Marshall Sharp

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
July 2014
ISBN:
9780807832141
eISBN:
9781469605807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807887813_hayes.24
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on Justice Sharp's opposition to the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S. Constitution in North Carolina—her most famous, least understood, and most ... More


“Zero, None, Zip, Nada”: Lindy Boggs and Gender Gap Politics

Jeffrey Bloodworth

in Losing the Center: The Decline of American Liberalism, 1968–1992

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780813142296
eISBN:
9780813142326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813142296.003.0011
Subject:
History, Political History

Reagan's 1980 landslide came with one silver lining for Democrats: the gender gap. As the first presidential election where men and women significantly diverged, Democrats believed women offered them ... More


Low-Key Feminism as a Strategy

Erin M. Kempker

in Big Sister: Feminism, Conservatism, and Conspiracy in the Heartland

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780252041976
eISBN:
9780252050701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252041976.003.0005
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Chapter 4 focuses on how Hoosier feminists adapted feminism to the particular political environment of Indiana, specifically we examine feminists’ decision to forward a “low key” image to achieve ... More


Passages: Feminism, Journalism, and the Transatlantic Twenties

Amy Aronson

in Crystal Eastman: A Revolutionary Life

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780199948734
eISBN:
9780190912864
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199948734.003.0010
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, Social History

After the vote was won, Crystal Eastman hoped to transform successful but single-issue suffragism into a class- and race-conscious, transnationally minded feminism. She ran afoul of Alice Paul, ... More


Women and Gender

Andrea G. Radke-Moss (ed.)

in Thunder from the Right: Ezra Taft Benson in Mormonism and Politics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780252042256
eISBN:
9780252051081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252042256.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Benson’s views on women’s roles might be dismissed as simply the old-fashioned vestiges of Mormon patriarchy and generational sexism. Certainly, “Motherhood to the exclusion of all else” and the ... More


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