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Chronology of Paleogene Mammal Localities

Erik R. Seiffert

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The Afro-Arabian fossil record of Paleogene evolution of mammals is poor compared with those from northern continents, but it is steadily improving. Age constraints on early African mammal localities ... More


A Review of the Cenozoic Vegetation History of Africa

Bonnie F. Jacobs, Aaron D. Pan, and Christopher R. Scotese

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Mangrove vegetation related to the modern tropical Asian palm, Nypa, was present along Africa's coasts at low latitudes in the Paleocene and Eocene, and pollen evidence of other palms is common. This ... More


Marsupialia

Gregg F. Gunnell

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The fossil record of pouched mammals (cohort Marsupialia) in Africa is extremely limited, although it could be relatively ancient if a tooth described as a marsupial from the Cretaceous of Madagascar ... More


Ptolemaiida

Gregg F. Gunnell, Philip D. Gingerich, and Patricia A. Holroyd

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ptolemaiidae is an enigmatic family of fossil mammals that has proven difficult to classify. Osborn (1908) proposed the family based on Ptolemaia lyonsi, represented by a single lower jaw from ... More


Macroscelidea

Patricia A. Holroyd

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The distribution and broader relationships of the Macroscelidea, or sengis, have been the subject of two recent reviews that discuss their interrelationships and the relationships of the order to ... More


Embrithopoda

William J. Sanders, D. Tab Rasmussen, and John Kappelman

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Embrithopoda is represented in the Afro-Arabian fossil record by Arsinoitherium and Namatherium. Physically impressive, Arsinoitherium superficially resembled extant rhinos in the ornamentation of ... More


Rodentia

Alisa J Winkler, Christiane Denys, and D. Margaret Avery

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter summarizes the geographic distribution and ecology of the extant families of African rodents. It focuses on the fossil record and discusses the systematics, biochronology, and ... More


Paleogene Anthropoids

Erik R. Seiffert, Elwyn L. Simons, John G. Fleagle, and Marc Godinot

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Anthropoid primates were among the most common members of Afro-Arabian mammal faunas during the late Paleogene, and they may have been present on that landmass as early as the late Paleocene. ... More


Creodonta

Margaret E. Lewis and Michael Morlo

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0026
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The order Creodonta was first named by Cope (1875) and removed from its original placement in the order Carnivora. Some researchers still maintain that creodonts and carnivorans (or ... More


Neogene Insectivora

Percy M. Butler

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0029
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The order Insectivora was formerly used to comprise a miscellany of eutherians with primitive characters, thought to be relatively little modified descendants from the ancestral eutherian stock. ... More


Chiroptera

Gregg F. Gunnell

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0030
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The fossil record of bats is relatively poor, although there are places (for example, the Quercy karst deposits in France) where bat fossils can be quite common. Except for some exceptional ... More


Chalicotheriidae

Margery C. Coombs and Susanne M. Cote

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0033
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chalicotheres are an unusual group of extinct fossil perissodactyls that, despite a dentition suited for a herbivorous diet, had claws on their digits instead of hooves. The group first appeared in ... More


Camelidae

John M. Harris, Denis Geraads, and Nikos Solounias

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0041
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Camels originated in North America in the middle Eocene (Uintan land mammal age) and the first 36 million years of their history is confined to that continent. They were a highly successful group in ... More


Anthracotheriidae

Patricia A. Holroyd, Fabrice Lihoreau, Gregg F. Gunnell, and Ellen R. Miller

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0043
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Anthracotheriidae are a group of bunodont to selenodont artiodactyls distributed throughout the Old World and North America. The earliest anthracotheriids appear in the latest middle Eocene in Asia, ... More


Toward an Integrative Approach

J. G. M. Thewissen and Sirpa Nummela

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter presents an example of an integrative approach to the study of sensory evolution. It focuses on the sensory evolution of cetaceans, a group of mammals that moved from land to water ... More


The Carbon Cycle

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The chapter first shows carbon dioxide variability over long geological timescales. The current stocks and fluxes of carbon are then given, for the whole planet and for the atmosphere, ocean and land ... More


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