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Balance laws for small deformations

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

For solids it is often a good approximation to assume that the displacement and displacement gradient are small everywhere in the body. In this setting the basic laws for balance of mass, the ... More


Depolarisation and scattering entropy

S. R Cloude

in Polarisation: Applications in Remote Sensing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199569731
eISBN:
9780191721908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569731.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter is concerned with stochastic or random effects in wave scattering. It introduces the important concept of the generalised scattering coherency matrix, and relates it to the classical ... More


An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Daniel V. Schroeder

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Thermal physics deals with collections of large numbers of particles—typically 1023 or so. Examples include the air in a balloon, the water in a lake, the electrons in a chunk of metal, and the ... More


Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Andrew Clarke

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Temperature affects everything. It influences all aspects of the physical environment and governs any process that involves a flow of energy, setting boundaries on what an organism can or cannot do. ... More


Balance of energy and entropy imbalance

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law represents a balance between the rate of change of the internal energy plus the rate of change of kinetic energy of ... More


Introduction

Ramprasad Sengupta

in Ecological Limits and Economic Development

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198081654
eISBN:
9780199082407
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198081654.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The introductory chapter describes the scopes of the sciences of ecology and economics pointing out how the former analyses the life process in biosphere abstracting from human society while the ... More


Ten principles of thermal ecology

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

A brief summary of the key physical and ecological principles underpinning thermal ecology.


Disequilibrium 2: Associated Equilibrium States

Brian Bayly

in Chemical Change in Deforming Materials

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195067644
eISBN:
9780197560211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195067644.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The purpose of this chapter is to consider the question: how much uncertainty, or how coarse an approximation, is involved when we use ideas borrowed from equilibrium thermodynamics and apply them ... More


Geometry of a Multidimensional Universe: Weightless Art and the Painting of the Void

José María Yturralde and Adolfo Plasencia

in Is the Universe a Hologram?: Scientists Answer the Most Provocative Questions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036016
eISBN:
9780262339308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036016.003.0033
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

In this dialogue, which is also the epilogue of the book, the artist José María Yturralde, holds a conversation with the author in eight parts: In 1. He reflects on MIT, Art and Science; 2. He ... More


Measures of Segregation and Diversity Across Local Authorities

Richard Harris and Ron Johnston

in Ethnic Segregation Between Schools: Is It Increasing or Decreasing in England?

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781529204780
eISBN:
9781529204889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529204780.003.0003
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

Data about the school age population in Local Education Authorities provide contextual information about what is happening in terms of patterns of ethnic segregation at a broad geographic scale. In ... More


“’There is the Power,’ He Thought, ‘Right There’”: Dramatizing Entropy in Tar Baby and Paradise

Herman Beavers

in Toni Morrison: Memory and Meaning

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9781628460193
eISBN:
9781626740419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781628460193.003.0018
Subject:
Literature, American, 20th Century Literature

The earliest assessments of Tar Baby occurred at a moment before critics had abandoned the propensity to read African American literary texts through the aegis of racial essentialism and black ... More


One master, one sovereign

Salvatore Babones

in American Tianxia: Chinese Money, American Power and the End of History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781447336808
eISBN:
9781447336907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447336808.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Contrary to declinist narratives, the dominance of the United States in the contemporary world-system is increasingly solid and stable. The US economy remains vibrant, but the US benefits also from ... More


Mendelian Inheritance, ‘Eternal Differences’ and Entropy in Howards End

Daniel Aureliano Newman

in Modernist Life Histories: Biological Theory and The Experimental Bildungsroman

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9781474439619
eISBN:
9781474459716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474439619.003.0004
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter reads Howards End as a Bildungsroman whose developmental trajectory straddles two generations (those of parents and offspring) instead of being limited to the growth and acculturation of ... More


Thermodynamic relationships

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

In the next few chapters we shall discuss tensors of rank zero to four which relate the intensive variables in the outer triangle of the Heckmann Diagram to the extensive variables in the inner ... More


The Second Law

Daniel V. Schroeder

in An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Why are so many large-scale processes irreversible, happening in one direction but not the other as time passes? This chapter answers that question using three simple model systems: a collection of ... More


Statistical Mechanics and Information Theory for Complex Systems

Stefan Thurner, Rudolf Hanel, and Peter Klimekl

in Introduction to the Theory of Complex Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780198821939
eISBN:
9780191861062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198821939.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Most complex systems are statistical systems. Statsitical mechanics and information theory usually do not apply to complex systems because the latter break the assumptions of ergodicity, ... More


Energy and heat

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Energy is the capacity to do work and heat is the spontaneous flow of energy from one body or system to another through the random movement of atoms or molecules. The entropy of a system determines ... More


Temperature and its measurement

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Temperature is that property of a body which determines whether it gains or loses energy in a particular environment. In classical thermodynamics temperature is defined by the relationship between ... More


Temperature and reaction rate

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

All other things being equal, physiological reaction rate increases roughly exponentially with temperature. Organisms that have adapted over evolutionary time to live at different temperatures can ... More


Implicational models

James P. Blevins

in Word and Paradigm Morphology

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199593545
eISBN:
9780191761492
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199593545.003.0007
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, Theoretical Linguistics

Implicational models formalize classical WP models by treating morphological variation as uncertainty and structure as uncertainty reduction. An uncertainty-based perspective lends itself to ... More


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