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At Ellis Island

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on Howard Andrew Knox’s first year at Ellis Island in New York and how the physicians there dealt with the increasing concern about mentally deficient emigrants. By 1910, there ... More


An Appraisal

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This concluding chapter considers why Howard Andrew Knox’s work at Ellis Island in New York has been neglected and seeks to reinstate him as a key figure in the history of intelligence testing. From ... More


Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

John Richardson

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Howard Andrew Knox (1885–1949) served as assistant surgeon at Ellis Island during the 1910s, administering a range of verbal and nonverbal tests to determine the mental capacity of potential ... More


“I Was So Glad to Be in School Here”: Religious Organizations and the School on Ellis Island in the Early 1900s

Claire B. Gallagher

in Children and Youth During the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9781479894147
eISBN:
9781479804078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479894147.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines a kindergarten school on Ellis Island where educators sought to introduce literacy and citizenship to immigrant children and youth during the early 1900s despite the difficult ... More


Shipping Companies' Interference with the Enactment and Implementation of Immigration Laws during the Progressive Era

Torsten Feys

in The Battle for the Migrants: Introduction of Steamshipping on the North Atlantic and Its Impact on the European Exodus

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781927869000
eISBN:
9781786944443
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9781927869000.003.0006
Subject:
History, Maritime History

This final chapter explores the ways in which shipping companies both attempted to prevent and successfully blocked the implementation of numerous American laws restricting the passage of migrants. ... More


The Ellis Island Tests

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the series of performance tests developed by Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues and administered to mentally deficient emigrants at Ellis Island in New York. Knox and ... More


Popularizing the Work at Ellis Island

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on the performance tests developed by Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues and administered to mentally deficient emigrants at Ellis Island in New York, and how they brought ... More


Controlling and Protecting White Women: The State and Sentimental Forms of Coercion, 1850–1917

Andrew Urban

in Brokering Servitude: Migration and the Politics of Domestic Labor during the Long Nineteenth Century

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780814785843
eISBN:
9780814764749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814785843.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

By 1882, federal immigration officials had assumed sole responsibility for determining who qualified as eligible to enter the United States. By the 1890s, they also wielded the power to deport ... More


Practical Issues in Intelligence Testing

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explores the various practical issues in intelligence testing that Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues encountered while they were administering performance tests to mentally deficient ... More


Immigration, Intelligence, and the Public Health Service

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the issues of immigration and intelligence that had arisen in the United States between 1880 and 1912, a period of increasing public clamor and concern that mentally deficient ... More


Suspicious People and Untrustworthy Documents

Craig Robertson

in The Passport in America: The History of a Document

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199927579
eISBN:
9780190254568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199927579.003.0010
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter examines why the passport was not considered necessary when border security was defined through a racialized understanding of what made the nation productive and healthy, and when the ... More


Permanent Transit: Jewish Migration during the Interwar Period

Tobias Brinkmann

in 1929: Mapping the Jewish World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814720202
eISBN:
9781479878253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814720202.003.0005
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter examines Jewish migration during the interwar period. In particular, it considers why countless Jewish migrants across central and eastern Europe were caught up in the so-called ... More


After Ellis Island

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on Howard Andrew Knox’s life after his departure from Ellis Island in New York in 1916, when he resigned his commission in the Public Health Service. Several factors may have ... More


What do Performance Tests Measure?

Richardson John T. E.

in Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231141680
eISBN:
9780231512114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter considers what performance tests actually measure in light of current psychological research. It was Howard Andrew Knox who first used the term “performance test” in his own writings in ... More


. “I hated america”

McBride Joseph

in Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2014
ISBN:
9781604738384
eISBN:
9781604738391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781604738384.003.0002
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

This chapter recounts Capra’s grueling voyage to and arrival in America with his family in 1903. The journey took thirteen days. Eight days out, on May 18, Capra marked his sixth birthday. On Sunday ... More


The Moment of Transition: State Officials, the Federal Government, and the Formation of American Immigration Policy

Hidetaka Hirota

in Expelling the Poor: Atlantic Seaboard States and the Nineteenth-Century Origins of American Immigration Policy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780190619213
eISBN:
9780190619244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619213.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter traces how state immigration laws developed into national policy. When the Supreme Court declared states’ exclusion policies unconstitutional in 1876, New York and Massachusetts ... More


Conclusion

Hidetaka Hirota

in Expelling the Poor: Atlantic Seaboard States and the Nineteenth-Century Origins of American Immigration Policy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780190619213
eISBN:
9780190619244
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619213.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century, British and Irish Modern History

The Conclusion begins by arguing that the history of immigration control in the United States up to the 1880s is a story of American state development. It demonstrates how governmental policy for ... More


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