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Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Structural crystallography provides key information to understand the mechanism involved for biological processes. The technique requires high‐quality crystals. The book Macromolecular ... More


Colliders

E. J. N. Wilson

in An Introduction to Particle Accelerators

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198508298
eISBN:
9780191706363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508298.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The first colliders were built at Stanford and at Novosibirsk. Electrons circulated in two rings colliding where they touched. Single ring colliders circulated electrons and positrons in opposite ... More


Nanoscale Device Physics: Science and Engineering Fundamentals

Sandip Tiwari

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780198759874
eISBN:
9780191820847
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198759874.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Nanoscale devices are distinguishable from the larger microscale devices in their specific dependence on physical phenomena and effects that are central to their operation. The size change manifests ... More


Beyond Chemistry and Biology

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0020
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Artificial chemistries can be found in fields beyond chemistry and biology. While it is most natural to look at examples from these fields, the self-assembly of entities at different scales can be ... More


Understanding the Brain

Arlindo Oliveira

in The Digital Mind: How Science is Redefining Humanity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262036030
eISBN:
9780262338394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036030.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter summarily describes some of the technologies that are currently being used to image living brains and understand brain behaviour. The important projects in this area are briefly ... More


Transmission and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780198830252
eISBN:
9780191868665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830252.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Transmission electron microscopy provides information on all aspects of the microstructure — structural, atomic, chemical, electronic, magnetic, etc. — at the highest spatial resolution in physical ... More


Two Hands Clapping: Redox Reactions

Peter Atkins

in Reactions: The private life of atoms

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199695126
eISBN:
9780191918445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199695126.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

I promised in Reactions 3 and 4 to lead you to the promised land of the modern understanding of oxidation and reduction reactions. This is the section where these two great chemical rivers flow ... More


Electron Spin and General Angular Momenta

Jochen Autschbach

in Quantum Theory for Chemical Applications: From Basic Concepts to Advanced Topics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190920807
eISBN:
9780197508350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190920807.003.0019
Subject:
Chemistry, Quantum and Theoretical Chemistry

The historical background of the discovery of the electron spin is provided. The Stern-Gerlach and Einstein-de Haas experiments are discussed. The operators for a single electron spin are defined, ... More


Post-Hartree-Fock Methods and Electron Correlation: A Very Brief Overview

Jochen Autschbach

in Quantum Theory for Chemical Applications: From Basic Concepts to Advanced Topics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190920807
eISBN:
9780197508350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190920807.003.0020
Subject:
Chemistry, Quantum and Theoretical Chemistry

‘This chapter sketches how the electron correlation is treated in post-Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunction methods. The distinction between static and dynamic correlation is explained. A configuration ... More


A Living Work of Art: The Life and Science of Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

A. J. Kox and H. F. Schatz

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198870500
eISBN:
9780191912825
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198870500.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was one of the greatest physicists and mathematicians the Netherlands has ever known. Einstein called him “a living work of art, a perfect personality.” During his funeral in ... More


Forms and consequences of incompatibility

Geoffrey E. Hill

in Mitonuclear Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198818250
eISBN:
9780191859465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198818250.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

To understand the evolutionary consequences of poor coadaptation of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, it is necessary to consider in molecular detail the manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. ... More


A new multidisciplinary age of 2.61–2.07 Ma for the Sterkfontein Member 4 australopiths

Robyn Pickering and Andy I.R. Herries

in Hominin Postcranial Remains from Sterkfontein, South Africa, 1936-1995

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780197507667
eISBN:
9780197507698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197507667.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Sterkfontein Caves is the single richest early hominin site in the world, with deposits yielding two potential species of Australopithecus, Paranthropus robustus, and early Homo, as well as an ... More


Metabolism

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Metabolism is driven by redox reactions, in which part of the difference in potential energy between the electron donor and acceptor is used by the organism for its life processes (with the remainder ... More


Wave–Particles Interaction

A. Campa, T. Dauxois, D. Fanelli, and S. Ruffo

in Physics of Long-Range Interacting Systems

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199581931
eISBN:
9780191787140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581931.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In this Chapter an alternative derivation of the self-consistent Vlasov-Maxwell equations for wave-particles interaction is given. The analysis is carried out under a rigorous Hamiltonian framework ... More


Emergence of the Modern Research University: Harvard and M.I.T., 1945-1970

Richard M. Freeland

in Academia's Golden Age: Universities in Massachusetts, 1945-1970

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195054644
eISBN:
9780197560082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195054644.003.0010
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Harvard and M.I.T. were ideally positioned to exploit the advantageous possibilities for development that arose after World War II. Both did so, pursuing routes that reflected their different ... More


The professional schools

Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller

in Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195144574
eISBN:
9780197561829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195144574.003.0017
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Meritocracy flourished most luxuriantly in Harvard’s professional schools. The Big Four—the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Schools of Law, Medicine, and Business—threw off the ... More


The professional schools

Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller

in Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195144574
eISBN:
9780197561829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195144574.003.0025
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Harvard’s graduate and professional schools were where the tension between social responsibility and teaching the technical skills demanded by a complex society most fully emerged. The Graduate ... More


Processes in anoxic environments

David L. Kirchman

in Processes in Microbial Ecology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198789406
eISBN:
9780191831256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789406.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

During organic material degradation in oxic environments, electrons from organic material, the electron donor, are transferred to oxygen, the electron acceptor, during aerobic respiration. Other ... More


Electrons in solids

Ian R. Kenyon

in Quantum 20/20: Fundamentals, Entanglement, Gauge Fields, Condensates and Topology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780198808350
eISBN:
9780191846052
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808350.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Electron energy bands in solids are introduced. Free electron theory for metals is presented: the Fermi gas, Fermi energy and temperature. Electrical and thermal conductivity are interpreted, ... More


Phase transitions and their devices

Sandip Tiwari

in Nanoscale Device Physics: Science and Engineering Fundamentals

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780198759874
eISBN:
9780191820847
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198759874.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Phase transitions as a collective response of an ensemble, with appearance of unique stable properties spontaneously, is critical to a variety of devices: electronic, magnetic, optical, and their ... More


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