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Bayesian Epistemology

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Probabilistic models have much to offer to epistemology and philosophy of science. Arguably, the coherence theory of justification claims that the more coherent a set of propositions is, the more ... More


 Chasing Duhem: The Problem of Unconceived Alternatives

P. Kyle Stanford

in Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195174083
eISBN:
9780199786367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195174089.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Nearly a century ago, French physicist Pierre Duhem offered a characteristically lucid and provocative articulation of the challenge to the power of scientific methods to uncover theoretical truths ... More


Magnetic hysteresis

Mauro Fabrizio and Morro Angelo

in Electromagnetism of Continuous Media: Mathematical Modelling and Applications

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527008
eISBN:
9780191713316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527008.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

Hysteresis is a phenomenon where nonlinearity and memory effects occur at the same time. This chapter describes a few models of magnetic hysteresis with particular emphasis on these two features. ... More


Old‐Age and New‐Age Holism

Peter Achinstein

in The Book of Evidence

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195143898
eISBN:
9780199833023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195143892.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Evidential holism, espoused by Pierre Duhem and W.V. Quine, is the view that nothing can be evidence for or against an isolated hypothesis, but only for or against some group of hypotheses. The ... More


The Consequences of Extensivity

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199646944
eISBN:
9780191775123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646944.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Although extensivity is not an essential property of thermodynamic systems, it is a very useful concept for analysing the properties of materials when we can ignore surface and boundary effects. This ... More


When Explanation Leads to Inference

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

When is it justified to infer from the fact that a theory provides a good explanation of phenomena to the truth of the theory used in explanation (i.e. inference to the best explanation)? Bas van ... More


Confirmation

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Epistemology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Applies the models to the confirmation of scientific hypotheses by means of partially reliable test instruments. Shows that the variety-of-evidence thesis is false under certain plausible ... More


Balance of energy and entropy imbalance

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law represents a balance between the rate of change of the internal energy plus the rate of change of kinetic energy of ... More


Galileo Right Again, Wrong Again: Hermeneutics, Epistemology, “Heresy” (1866–1928)

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

in Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520242616
eISBN:
9780520941373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520242616.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter addresses the theological rehabilitation of Galileo implicit in Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Providentissimus Deus; the epistemological reconviction of the culprit in Pierre Duhem's To ... More


Speculation: Within and About Science

Peter Achinstein

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780190615055
eISBN:
9780190615086
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190615055.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

Newton urged scientists never to speculate, only to prove by establishing experimental facts. Einstein urged scientists to speculate freely, since only daring speculations, not experimental facts, ... More


The Third Law

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The third law of thermodynamics is stated, and used to obtain general information about response functions and other properties at low temperature. The unattainability theorem is obtained. Absolute ... More


The Consequences of Extensivity

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

While not all thermodynamic systems are extensive, those that are homogeneous satisfy the useful postulate of extensivity. In this chapter we return to the thermodynamic postulates and consider the ... More


Critical Rationalism: Common Questions Asked and Answered

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Philosophers of science and others have raised objections to Karl Popper’s principle of falsification and, since falsification is the cornerstone of Conjectures and Refutations, as well as John ... More


Thickening Holistic Pragmatism

Peter Hare

in Pragmatism with Purpose: Selected Writings

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780823264322
eISBN:
9780823266777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823264322.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, American Philosophy

This chapter discusses what it calls “thickening holistic pragmatism.” In 1951, W. V. Quine introduced a thin holism in “Two Dogmas of Empiricism.” This was followed by a historical process in which ... More


Thermodynamic Limit

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

When one describes systems which are homogeneous, stable, and macroscopic in size, it no longer matters whether macroscopic data are given as sharp constraints or as expectation values. This is the ... More


Perspectivalism and Optionalism

Jonathan L. Kvanvig

in Rationality and Reflection: How to Think About What to Think

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780198716419
eISBN:
9780191785054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716419.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter further explains and defends this view of epistemic rationality, termed Perspectivalism. The name derives from a fundamental platitude in the theory of rationality, to the effect that ... More


When is a material stable?

Adrian P Sutton

in Concepts of Materials Science

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9780192846839
eISBN:
9780191938764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192846839.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter is an introduction to classical thermodynamics that does not assume any knowledge of the subject. The significance of thermodynamic equilibrium in materials is discussed keeping in mind ... More


Functions and methods

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The fundamental relation of thermodynamics is given, and general methods introduced and applied. The thermodynamics potentials, Euler relation, Gibbs–Duhem relation, and Maxwell relations are all ... More


The Results of a Test Are Agreeable to the Prediction

Bart J. Wilson

in The Property Species: Mine, Yours, and the Human Mind

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780190936785
eISBN:
9780190936822
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190936785.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics, Economic History

Using a first-person three-dimensional virtual world experiment, this chapter reports a test of an implication of the book’s theory, namely that if A has property in Y and X is in Y, then A has ... More


Gibbs’ third paper

Robert T. Hanlon

in Block by Block: The Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198851547
eISBN:
9780191886133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198851547.003.0036
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In his third and most famous paper, Gibbs created chemical potential to enable analysis of equilibrium in multi-species / multi-phase systems, introduced his eponymous phase rule, and developed the ... More


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