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Prisoners' Dilemma Is a Newcomb Problem

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume II

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195036466
eISBN:
9780199833399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195036468.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This paper argues that, considered as puzzles about rationality, the Prisoners’ Dilemma and Newcomb's Problem are essentially one and the same problem.


Equilibrium

Ken Binmore

in Natural Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195178111
eISBN:
9780199783670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178111.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

After demolishing metaphysical notions of moral behavior, John Mackie's Inventing Right and Wrong argues that the way forward is through the study of anthropology and game theory. This chapter begins ... More


The New Security Dilemma

Philip G. Cerny

in Rethinking World Politics: A Theory of Transnational Neopluralism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199733699
eISBN:
9780199776740
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733699.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

International security is undergoing a particularly radical transformation: the New Security Dilemma (NSD). States and people are no longer most threatened by interstate wars — that is, wars between ... More


 Getting Locked In

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter uses the Prisoner's Dilemma as the linking idea in an overview of many of the topics covered later in the book. The basic ideas are that of a dominated strategy and a Pareto-efficient ... More


The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid

Clark C. Gibson, Krister Andersson, Elinor Ostrom, and Sujai Shivakumar

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278855
eISBN:
9780191602863
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278857.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

What’s wrong with development aid? It is argued that much of aid’s failure is related to the institutions that structure its delivery. These institutions govern the complex relationships between the ... More


Laying the Theoretical Foundations for the Study of Development Aid

Clark C. Gibson

in The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278855
eISBN:
9780191602863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278857.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter focuses on the problem of collective action as it relates to development at the operational level. It first explores how individuals’ motivation may hamper their incentive to work ... More


A Formal Analysis of Incentives in Strategic Interactions Involving an International Development Cooperation Agency

Clark C. Gibson

in The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278855
eISBN:
9780191602863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278857.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Initial conditions in the recipient almost always reflect tragedies of the commons, public good problems, and principal-agent problems. Two broad motives/mechanisms behind the decision on the part of ... More


Basic Dynamic Analysis

Fernando Vega‐Redondo

in Evolution, Games, and Economic Behaviour

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774723
eISBN:
9780191596971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774729.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Approaches evolutionary analysis from a dynamic viewpoint by introducing the Replicator Dynamics (RD)—a simple formalization of Darwinian Natural Selection. It revisits many of the issues addressed ... More


Individual Rationality

Kaushik Basu

in Prelude to Political Economy: A Study of the Social and Political Foundations of Economics

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198296713
eISBN:
9780191595943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198296711.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter analyses the concept of individual rationality. It covers internal consistency, procrastination and addiction, the Traveler’s Dilemma, the simplified E-Mail Game, the paradox of ... More


Measuring Social Norms and Preferences Using Experimental Games: A Guide for Social Scientist s

Colin F. Camerer and Ernst Fehr

in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199262052
eISBN:
9780191601637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262055.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The work of the cross‐cultural behavioural experiments project presented in this book is rooted in the logic of game theory and the practices of experimental economics, and this chapter provides an ... More


Groups

Paul Weirich

in Collective Rationality: Equilibrium in Cooperative Games

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195388381
eISBN:
9780199866700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388381.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Collective rationality is ordinary rationality extended to groups. Efficiency is a goal but not a requirement of collective rationality. In the Prisoner's Dilemma individual rationality does not ... More


Environment and Development

Pranab Bardhan and Christopher Udry

in Development Microeconomics

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198773719
eISBN:
9780191595929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198773714.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Begins with a note on the two‐way relationship between poverty and the environment and on the U‐shaped curve relating economic development and environmental quality. The next section elucidates the ... More


Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality

David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199751808
eISBN:
9780199894840
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751808.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This book defends an interconnected set of moral arguments for God's existence by arguing that classical theism better explains moral duty, freedom, and responsibility than naturalism does. After ... More


Understanding User Needs

Marc H. Meyer

in The Fast Path to Corporate Growth: Leveraging Knowledge and Technologies to New Market Applications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195180862
eISBN:
9780199851270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195180862.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Knowledge Management

Segmenting markets for growth should provide one or more clear targets to which a company can extend its core technologies and other business assets. Those targets are some combination of new users ... More


Managerial and organizational perspectives

John Child, David Faulkner, and Stephen B. Tallman

in Cooperative Strategy: Managing Alliances, Networks, and Joint Ventures

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199266241
eISBN:
9780191699139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266241.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, Strategy, Organization Studies

Organizational and managerial theories may also give support to the understanding of cooperative strategy. This chapter first looks into the strategic management theory (SMT) in which some of the ... More


Two More Solutions of My Own

Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski

in The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195107630
eISBN:
9780199852956
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195107630.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter proposes two more solutions to the dilemma of divine foreknowledge and argues that they solve both the Accidental Necessity Version of the dilemma and what is termed the Timeless ... More


The Euthyphro Dilemma

David Baggett and Jerry L. Walls

in Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199751808
eISBN:
9780199894840
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199751808.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

In nearly every ethics text, the famous Euthyphro Dilemma—is something moral because God commands it, or does God command it because it is moral?—is touted as the decisive defeater for theistic ... More


Philosophical Papers Volume II

David Lewis

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195036466
eISBN:
9780199833399
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195036468.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

A collection of 13 papers by David Lewis, written on a variety of topics including causation, counterfactuals and indicative conditionals, the direction of time, subjective and objective probability, ... More


An Application

Timothy Williamson

in Knowledge and its Limits

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256563
eISBN:
9780191598678
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925656X.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The idea of margin for error of principles is used to analyse the Surprise Examination Paradox. Although the pupils in the story know that there will be a surprise examination, they do not know that ... More


Strategy: Reason and Equilibrium

David Gauthier

in Morals by Agreement

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249924
eISBN:
9780191597497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198249926.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Morality is concerned with interaction among persons, and so with strategic choice, in which each adopts a strategy on the basis of what he expects others to do. We state three conditions of ... More


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