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Theory – the bare essentials

Erich H. Kisi and Christopher J. Howard

in Applications of Neutron Powder Diffraction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780198515944
eISBN:
9780191705663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515944.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the properties of thermal neutrons. Their wavelength (from the de Broglie equation) is well suited to the investigation of condensed matter, i.e., to the study of liquids, ... More


DENSE PLASMA

Takashi Fujimoto

in Plasma Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530282
eISBN:
9780191713149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530282.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

When the plasma density is high, the Coulomb potential for the atomic electron is modified and level energies, transition probabilities are accordingly modified. Collision cross sections are also ... More


QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFRACTION BY APERIODIC CRYSTALS

Sander Van Smaalen

in Incommensurate Crystallography

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570820
eISBN:
9780191718762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570820.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter presents the quantitative analysis of the intensities of Bragg reflections of incommensurately modulated crystals and composite crystals. The observed structure factor is introduced in ... More


Diffuse scattering – thermal, short-range order, gaseous, liquid, and amorphous scattering

Erich H. Kisi and Christopher J. Howard

in Applications of Neutron Powder Diffraction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780198515944
eISBN:
9780191705663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515944.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter deals with diffuse scattering attributable to departures from perfect crystallinity and from gaseous, liquid, or amorphous states. First, the way in which thermal vibration of atoms ... More


PHONONS

J. M. Ziman

in Electrons and Phonons: The Theory of Transport Phenomena in Solids

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507796
eISBN:
9780191709937
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507796.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the basic properties of phonons. Topics covered include solid matter as a gas of excitations, the crystal lattice, dynamics of a linear lattice, dynamics of space lattices, the ... More


Phonons

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

In a solid, energy can be stored in vibrations of the atoms which are arranged in a lattice. In the same way that photons are quantized electromagnetic waves that describe the elementary excitations ... More


Electrical properties—theory

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Ice has a large dielectric permittivity arising from the reorientation of molecular dipoles in an electric field. This reorientation occurs by the motion of protonic point defects — H3O+ and OH- ions ... More


The basic theory of neutron scattering

Rolf Hempelmann

in Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Solid State Diffusion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198517436
eISBN:
9780191706974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198517436.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses ways to describe theoretically neutron scattering as a probe for condensed matter, first the scattering on a rigidly bound and isolated nucleus by the neutron-nucleus ... More


DIFFUSION PHENOMENA

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses several configuration space aspects of Brownian motion, in particular, problems related to diffusion. The Smoluchowski theory of diffusion controlled chemical reactions is ... More


ROTATIONAL DIFFUSION

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter treats rotational diffusion in the Smoluchowski limit, but not limited to uniaxial diffusion. The rotational Langevin equation for a spherical particle with a homogeneous external field ... More


4 Phonons and their participation in optical phenomena

Ivan Pelant and Jan Valenta

in Luminescence Spectroscopy of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199588336
eISBN:
9780191738548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588336.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Description of phonons and their participation in optical phenomena deals with the electron–phonon and exciton–phonon interactions, effects being crucial for understanding the luminescence processes ... More


Cooperative local dynamics – the glass-transition zone

C. M. Roland

in Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199571574
eISBN:
9780191728976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571574.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

When the density of segments becomes sufficiently high, the motions of polymer chains are governed primarily by intermolecular cooperativity. With continued cooling or pressurization, the timescale ... More


X-Ray Diffraction

Kannan M. Krishnan

in Principles of Materials Characterization and Metrology

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780198830252
eISBN:
9780191868665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830252.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

X-rays diffraction is fundamental to understanding the structure and crystallography of biological, geological, or technological materials. X-rays scatter predominantly by the electrons in solids, ... More


Optical Propagation in Water

Michael E. Thomas

in Optical Propagation in Linear Media: Atmospheric Gases and Particles, Solid State Components, and Water

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195091618
eISBN:
9780197560679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195091618.003.00014
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

From a basic physics perspective, liquids are the least understood state of matter. Yet this medium plays an important role in the process of life on this planet. The human body is largely composed ... More


The Harmonic Solid

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199646944
eISBN:
9780191775123
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646944.003.0025
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The harmonic solid is a model of vibrations in a crystal. It goes beyond the simpler Einstein model, which was discussed in Chapter 23. The low-temperature behaviour is shown to be extremely similar ... More


Ionic soft matter

Masao Doi

in Soft Matter Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199652952
eISBN:
9780191774942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652952.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Ionic soft matter includes suspensions of charged colloidal particles, polyelectrolyte solutions, polyelectrolyte gels, ionic micelles, etc. A common special feature in these materials is that they ... More


1913: The First Steps

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter relates the first steps of X-ray crystallography in 1913. It starts with a brief account of the flock of experiments in England and Germany, prompted by Bragg’s experiment with mica. It ... More


The Route to Crystal Structure Determination

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter recalls the early developments of X-ray crystallography and how it spread throughout the world, and the first theoretical and experimental investigations that led to the determination of ... More


Specific heat and entropy

Robert E. Newnham

in Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198520757
eISBN:
9780191916601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198520757.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Before beginning the discussion of directional properties, we pause to consider specific heat, an important scalar property of solids which helps illustrate the important thermodynamic ... More


Quantum theory of specific heat

Ta-Pei Cheng

in Einstein's Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity - Derived, Explained, and Appraised

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199669912
eISBN:
9780191744488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669912.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

A year after his photon proposal, Einstein came to the conclusion that his quantum idea was compatible with Planck’s energy quanta. He provided a derivation of Planck’s spectrum distribution that is ... More


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