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Modelling the Middle Ages: The History and Theory of England's Economic Development

John Hatcher and Mark Bailey

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199244119
eISBN:
9780191697333
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199244119.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Medieval History, Economic History

Most of what has been written on the economy of the Middle Ages is deeply influenced by abstract concepts and theories. The most powerful and popular of these guiding beliefs are derived from ... More


Adding Value

John Kay

in The Business of Economics

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292227
eISBN:
9780191596520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292228.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter describes financial relationships between competitive advantage, economic rent, added value, and various other measures of firm performance.


The Changing Visions of Economics

Debra Satz

in Why Some Things Should Not Be for Sale: The Moral Limits of Markets

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195311594
eISBN:
9780199870714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311594.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The view of the market as a homogeneous mechanism operating across different types of exchanges is distinctly modern. The classical political economists. especially Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and ... More


The Vision Translated

Athol Fitzgibbons

in Keynes's Vision: A New Political Economy

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198283201
eISBN:
9780191596254
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198283202.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Considers the differences between Keynes's economic theories and the Keynesian economics that evolved in the second half of the twentieth century. The difference is between a non‐mechanistic system ... More


The Natural Origins of Economics

Margaret Schabas

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226735696
eISBN:
9780226735719
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226735719.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

References to the economy are ubiquitous in modern life, and virtually every facet of human activity has capitulated to market mechanisms. In the early modern period, however, there was no common ... More


Classical Political Economy in Its Heyday

Margaret Schabas

in The Natural Origins of Economics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226735696
eISBN:
9780226735719
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226735719.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines the works of several English economists and shows how their theories about political economy are indebted to natural philosophy. These include the works of David Ricardo, Thomas ... More


Structural Change and Fiscal Crisis

Michael Veseth

in Mountains of Debt: Crisis and Change in Renaissance Florence, Postwar Britain, and Postwar America

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195064209
eISBN:
9780199854998
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195064209.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter presents basic ideas concerning structural change and fiscal crisis in the long view. It discusses the causes of major structural economic change and its likely impact on social ... More


Higher Education Is a Service

Robert B. Archibald and David H. Feldman

in Why Does College Cost So Much?

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199744503
eISBN:
9780199866168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744503.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

The path that most service prices follow over time differs systematically from the evolution of goods prices over time. As far back as David Ricardo's work in the early 19th century, economists have ... More


Refinement, Affirmation—and the Seeds of Revolt

John Kenneth Galbraith

in Economics in Perspective: A Critical History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171647
eISBN:
9781400889075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171647.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines how economists in the established tradition amended and sharpened Adam Smith's conclusions, struggled to resolve his ambiguities, and sought otherwise to complete his system. In ... More


Progress and Poverty: Malthus and Ricardo in America

Christopher W. Calvo

in The Emergence of Capitalism in Early America

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780813066332
eISBN:
9780813058474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813066332.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter further illustrates the split between American and British liberal political economy by analyzing the antebellum treatment of Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo. Important distinctions are ... More


The Problem of the Poor

in Friends of the Unrighteous Mammon: Northern Christians and Market Capitalism, 1815-1860

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226137063
eISBN:
9780226137087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226137087.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Religious Studies

Antebellum Christians had many reasons to be skeptical of the modernizing economy and the new so-called science that was meant to explain it. Some feared that political economy might have atheistic ... More


A Look at the Landscape

John Kenneth Galbraith

in Economics in Perspective: A Critical History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171647
eISBN:
9781400889075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171647.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter discusses the history of economics and the events that shaped that history. It first considers the nature and content of economics, taking into account questions related to the theory of ... More


Reading ‘Trade’ in The Wealth of Nations

Keith Tribe

in The Economy of the Word: Language, History, and Economics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780190211615
eISBN:
9780190211646
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190211615.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

International trade was clearly linked to the ‘wealth of a nation’ in the eighteenth century, but since modern trade theory is thought to begin with Ricardo, it is assumed that eighteenth-century ... More


The Great Classical Tradition, 1: Around the Margins

John Kenneth Galbraith

in Economics in Perspective: A Critical History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171647
eISBN:
9781400889075
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171647.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines the classical tradition in economics that emerged after the death of David Ricardo. Following Ricardo's death, there was some systemic dissent, mainly from French, German, and ... More


VALUE IN CLASSICAL ECONOMICS

Patrick L. Anderson

in The Economics of Business Valuation: Towards a Value Functional Approach

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780804758307
eISBN:
9780804783224
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758307.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

The author begins a review of 10 different theories of value with this chapter on classical economic thought. The labor theory of value dates as least as far back as Adam Smith and the 18th century, ... More


The bank

John Kenneth Galbraith and James K. Galbraith

in Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691171661
eISBN:
9781400889082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691171661.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter discusses the history of central banks, with emphasis on the case of the Bank of England. For a long time after John Law, Frenchmen remained deeply suspicious of banks and bank notes, of ... More


The Problem of the Human Sciences

Stephen Gaukroger

in Civilization and the Culture of Science: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1795-1935

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198849070
eISBN:
9780191883347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198849070.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In the nineteenth century there arose claims to scientific standing that were highly contested, and provoked a new kind of metascientific enquiry. The accreditation and ranking of disciplines were ... More


Modeling the Dynamics of Urban Growth

in Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226013770
eISBN:
9780226013787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226013787.003.0003
Subject:
History, Ancient History / Archaeology

This chapter examines models of modern urban growth. It looks back at the ideas proposed by economist David Ricardo almost two centuries ago about the importance of trade for economic development and ... More


The Ideas Behind the Making of Welfare Institutions

in Measuring Up: A History of Living Standards in Mexico, 1850-1950

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804773164
eISBN:
9780804782852
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804773164.003.0002
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This chapter analyzes the ideas that influence the concepts and policies on welfare, poverty, and charity in Mexico. It discusses the views of poverty alleviation by three classical economics, ... More


The Case for Free Trade: Old Theories, New Evidence

Douglas A. Irwin

in Free Trade under Fire: Fifth Edition

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780691201009
eISBN:
9780691203362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691201009.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter examines the economic logic of free trade and recent empirical evidence reinforcing the case for it. It mentions Adam Smith and David Ricardo who have described the gains from trade in a ... More


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