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Justice as Mutual Advantage

Matt Matravers

in Justice and Punishment: The Rationale of Coercion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295730
eISBN:
9780191599828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295731.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

‘Justice as mutual advantage’ theorists argue that moral norms are those that rational, self‐interested persons would accept in regulating the pursuit of their self‐interest. Taking David Gauthier's ... More


Justice and Punishment: The Rationale of Coercion

Matt Matravers

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295730
eISBN:
9780191599828
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295731.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This book attempts to answer the challenge of showing that morality is not a confidence trick or a fetish. It does so by arguing that moral norms are those that rational, self‐interested people could ... More


Contemporary Meta‐Ethical Alternatives: Humanistic Naturalism

C. Stephen Evans

in Kierkegaard's Ethic of Love: Divine Commands and Moral Obligations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199272174
eISBN:
9780191602061
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272174.003.0011
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Naturalistic humanism is another possible alternative to divine command theory. David Gauthier, in Morals by Agreement, rejects any objective theory of value, relying instead on the creation of ... More


Without Me, Without You: Cooperation and Scarcity

Gijs van Donselaar

in The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195140392
eISBN:
9780199871483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140392.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

In Morals by Agreement David Gauthier seeks to demonstrate that compliance with what he calls “the Lockean proviso,”—which prohibits taking advantage of other people—is individually rational. This ... More


Morality and the theory of rational choice

Jules L. Coleman

in Markets, Morals, and the Law

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199253609
eISBN:
9780191719783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199253609.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Competition Law

This chapter considers the possibility of analysing morality as a solution to the problem of market failure. Here, morality is viewed as the outcome of a rational bargain nested in a prisoners' ... More


Natural Rights: Descriptive and Prescriptive

DAVID BOUCHER

in The Limits of Ethics in International Relations: Natural Law, Natural Rights, and Human Rights in Transition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199203529
eISBN:
9780191695490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199203529.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, International Relations and Politics

This chapter discusses the need to distinguish the descriptive and prescriptive traditions of natural rights. It contends that if either of the above has a claim to secularizing subjective rights, it ... More


Substitutes for God’s Assistance

JOHN E. HARE

in The Moral Gap: Kantian Ethics, Human Limits, and God's Assistance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269571
eISBN:
9780191683701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269571.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Theology

This chapter examines attempts in naturalistic ethics to bridge the moral gap. These include the works of Donald Campbell, David Gauthier, and Allan Gibbard. These authors suggested bridging the ... More


Alternative Justifications for Morality

James P. Sterba

in From Rationality to Equality

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199580767
eISBN:
9780191745836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580767.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

In general, there are three kinds of justifications for morality that must be taken into account before the justification provided in this book can be fully endorsed. First, there is a need to ... More


The Benefit of Another's Pains: Original Acquisition and Parasitic Action

Gijs van Donselaar

in The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195140392
eISBN:
9780199871483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140392.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

David Gauthier's “Lockean proviso” implied the prohibition of parasitic actions—actions that improve one's position through the worsening of the position of someone else. This chapter tests the ... More


The Interplay of Intention and Reason

Michael E. Bratman

in Planning, Time, and Self-Governance: Essays in Practical Rationality

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
June 2018
ISBN:
9780190867850
eISBN:
9780190867898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190867850.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In a series of essays—in particular, his 1994 essay “Assure and Threaten”—David Gauthier develops a two-tier pragmatic theory of practical rationality and argues, within that theory, for a ... More


Constructivism, Contractarianism, and Basic Obligations

Kenneth R. Westphal

in How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity without Debating Moral Realism

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198747055
eISBN:
9780191809200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747055.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Kant’s Natural Law Constructivism affords an illuminating, powerful critique of Gauthier’s exemplary moral contractarianism. Hume’s and Kant’s Natural Law Constructivism is neutral regarding moral ... More


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