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Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Jan Sapp

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This book presents a history of the last two centuries of biology. It covers early evolutionary biology — Lamarck, Cuvier, Darwin, and Wallace through to Mayr and the neodarwinian synthesis — and ... More


Evolution and Revolution

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores the development of evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theory holds that the natural world is steadily changing, that organisms have slowly diverged from common ancestors, and ... More


Darwin on Aristotle

Allan Gotthelf

in Teleology, First Principles, and Scientific Method in Aristotle's Biology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199287956
eISBN:
9780191738296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287956.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Charles Darwin's famous 1882 letter, in which he remarks that his ‘two gods’, Linnaeus and Cuvier, were ‘mere school‐boys to old Aristotle’, has been thought to be only an extravagantly worded ... More


Bones of Contention

Mary Orr

in Flaubert's Tentation: Remapping Nineteenth-Century French Histories of Religion and Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199258581
eISBN:
9780191718083
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199258581.003.0008
Subject:
Literature, World Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

This final chapter reconsiders the famous set‐pieces of the ‘Sphinx and the Chimera’ and the ‘être la matière’ epiphany closing the text by close attention to real ‘monsters’ of Antoine's imagination ... More


Mental Energies, Ancient and Modern

John Beer

in Coleridge's Play of Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199574018
eISBN:
9780191723100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574018.003.0013
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

The new acceptance of animal magnetism in Germany renews his interest in its possible implication for those who, like himself, are apologists for the Christian religion. He studies and lectures on ... More


Show Me the Bone: Reconstructing Prehistoric Monsters in Nineteenth-Century Britain and America

Gowan Dawson

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226332734
eISBN:
9780226332871
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226332871.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the nineteenth century paleontologists claimed that, from just a single bone, they could identify and sometimes even reconstruct previously unknown prehistoric creatures. Such extraordinary ... More


Setting the Stage

David J. Meltzer

in The Great Paleolithic War: How Science Forged an Understanding of America's Ice Age Past

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226293226
eISBN:
9780226293363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226293363.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By the early 1800s Georges Cuvier had proven animal extinction and Louis Agassiz a onetime Ice Age, putting in place key elements for telling past time. A new dimension of archaeology opened in ... More


Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

John Reiss

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

More than two centuries ago, William Paley introduced his famous metaphor of the universe as a watch made by the Creator. For him, the exquisite structure of the universe necessitated a designer. ... More


The Problem

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter introduces the problem of biological design of teleology. It provides a brief historical and philosophical background of teleological explanations and argues that only through history ... More


Philsophical Background

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter provides the necessary philosophical background by defining teleological thinking and why it is a problem, and distinguishes conditional teleological explanations, which are acceptable, ... More


Design versus the Epicurean Hypothesis: Two Thousand Years of Debate

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter pursues the debate over design from its origins in ancient Greek philosophy through the Enlightenment to Cuvier and Darwin, contrasts teleological views with those of the atomist or ... More


Cuvier and the Principle of the Conditions for Existence

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on Georges Cuvier and his principle of the conditions for existence. Cuvier was in every sense a child of the Enlightenment, and brought a critical, rational attitude to the ... More


Darwin, Natural Theology, and the Principle of Natural Selection

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses Cuvier's influence in Britain, in particular the way in which his views were perceived in the intellectual environment that provided the intellectual background to Darwin's ... More


Introduction

Vybarr Cregan-Reid

in Discovering Gilgamesh: Geology, narrative and the historical sublime in Victorian culture

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780719090516
eISBN:
9781781706466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719090516.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

This chapter introduces how time and history were fought over in the nineteenth century and how emerging discplines were either used or shaped themselves around the debates.


Blaming Aristotle

J. David Archibald

in Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164122
eISBN:
9780231537667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164122.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines how Aristotle influenced both our perceptions and misperceptions of the history of life on Earth and the presumption that humans are the highest of animals. Aristotle's views ... More


Mansfield, Semmes, and West at Port Hudson

Brian R. McEnany

in For Brotherhood and Duty: The Civil War History of the West Point Class of 1862

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780813160627
eISBN:
9780813165479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813160627.003.0010
Subject:
History, Military History

Samuel Mansfield is the first in the class to take command of a volunteer unit. He returns to his home town in Connecticut after the death of his father, Maj. Gen. J. K. F. Mansfield at Antietam and ... More


Lamarck, Cuvier, and Darwin on Animal Behavior and Acquired Characters

Richard W. Burkhardt

in Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015141
eISBN:
9780262295642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015141.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and Lamarck's ideas on the role of habit in species change. It compares the ways in which Lamarck, Frédéric Cuvier and ... More


Emergence of the Ecological Sciences

Frank N. Egerton

in Roots of Ecology: Antiquity to Haeckel

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780520271746
eISBN:
9780520953635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520271746.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Humboldt became the main founder of phytogeography, with thirty volumes on his explorations and collections in Spanish America. Concurrently, André and François Michaux explored North American ... More


The “Hottentot Apron”: Genital Aberration in the History of Sexual Science

Rebecca Hodes

in Global History of Sexual Science, 1880-1960

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780520293373
eISBN:
9780520966673
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520293373.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter examines the role played by racial scientists in the sexual scientific readings of the “Hottentot apron,” a perceived elongation of the labia associated with the Khoisan women of South ... More


The “Normal State” in French Anatomical and Physiological Discourse of the 1820s and 1830s

Peter Cryle and Elizabeth Stephens

in Normality: A Critical Genealogy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226483863
eISBN:
9780226484198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226484198.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

The term “normal” first came into usage in French anatomy in the early 1820s. It was used to refer to organs that were fixed in their roles and highly integrated with those around them. In this ... More


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