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Appearance vs. Reality in the Sciences

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.00013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

In a scientific model typically the phenomena is embedded in a larger nature or reality. Whether we take this at face value or bracket the question of reality, we need to investigate the relations of ... More


Unbelief

Owen Chadwick

in The Early Reformation on the Continent

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269021
eISBN:
9780191600470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269021.003.0018
Subject:
Religion, Church History

The use of the term ‘atheist’ to describe sixteenth‐century unbelief can be misleading. Luther was concerned about the doubts about aspects of belief to be found among the people, but most ... More


Histories of Heaven

Alastair Fowler

in Time's Purpled Masquers: Stars and the Afterlife in Renaissance English Literature

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198183402
eISBN:
9780191674037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198183402.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, 16th-century and Renaissance Literature

Renaissance science and theology interacted rather than diverged, in a period of fruitful dialogue. Renaissance astronomy, with its combination of ... More


The giants

Louis A. Girifalco

in The Universal Force: Gravity - Creator of Worlds

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228966
eISBN:
9780191711183
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228966.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Newton truly did stand on the shoulders of giants whose work prepared the way for modern science. For astronomy and gravity, these were Ptolemy, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. Their individual ... More


Life on the Moon

George Basalla

in Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195171815
eISBN:
9780199786862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171815.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

Life on the Moon — an old notion — was revived by the astronomical work of Nicolaus Copernicus in the 16th century and the invention of the optical telescope in the early 17th century. Galileo ... More


Epilogue

Emma Gee

in Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199781683
eISBN:
9780199345151
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199781683.003.0007
Subject:
Classical Studies, Ancient Greek, Roman, and Early Christian Philosophy

This epilogue sets the Aratean tradition as we have studied it side-by-side with Copernicus’ De revolutionibus orbium caelestium, showing how Copernicus, as a Renaissance reader of Aratus and the ... More


Machines

Michael Ruse

in On Purpose

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691195957
eISBN:
9781400888603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691195957.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter discusses the Scientific Revolution that is dated from the publication of Nicolaus Copernicus's On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543, the work that put the sun rather than ... More


The Universe

John Leonard

in Faithful Labourers: A Reception History of Paradise Lost, 1667-1970: Volume I: Style and Genre; Volume II: Interpretative Issues

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199666553
eISBN:
9780191748967
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666553.003.0011
Subject:
Literature, 17th-century and Restoration Literature

This chapter traces the critical history that has given rise to the notion that Milton’s epic universe accords with the Ptolemaic system. Almost every editor since Newton (1749) has presented us with ... More


The Planet and the World

Eric Hayot

in On Literary Worlds

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199926695
eISBN:
9780199980499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199926695.003.0007
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism

This chapter discusses two significant events which are most literally relevant to world-making. These are, first, the series of cosmological and geographical revolutions leading from Ptolemy through ... More


The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Robert Westman

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus publicly defended his hypothesis that the Earth is a planet and the sun a body resting near the center of a finite universe. But why did Copernicus make this bold ... More


Introduction

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Is the Earth motionless at the center of a finite, star-studded sphere, or is it a planet moving in an annual circuit around the center? Medieval scholastic natural philosophers debated all sorts of ... More


The Literature of the Heavens and the Science of the Stars

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

In the fifteenth century, a vast and complex literature described, explained, and invoked the motions of the heavens and their influences on Earth. From the 1470s onward, the learning of the heavens, ... More


Constructing the Future

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Print, chronic warfare, the growth of towns and cities, and the arrival of syphilis converged in the late fifteenth century to create a new horizon for astrological forecasting. Nicolaus Copernicus's ... More


Copernicus and the Crisis of the Bologna Prognosticators, 1496–1500

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nicolaus Copernicus was involved in a culture of astrological prognosticators during his student years in Bologna. Although not a single word about astrology has survived in his writings, a great ... More


Between Wittenberg and Rome: The New System, Astrology, and The End of the World

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated his new arrangement of the heavens amid the intellectual skepticism and political insecurity of the late fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century prognosticatory ... More


The Wittenberg Interpretation of Copernicus's Theory

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nicolaus Copernicus's reputation as a learned astronomer was established very quickly in the two decades after the appearance of the Narratio and De Revolutionibus. But De Revolutionibus was not the ... More


Varieties of Astrological Credibility

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Nicolaus Copernicus's name became associated with an optimistic and safe view of prognosticatory practice, especially through the Prutenic Tables. As a resource of astrological forecast, the ... More


Foreknowledge, Skepticism, and Celestial Order in Rome

Robert S. Westman

in The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520254817
eISBN:
9780520948167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520254817.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

By the mid-sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church was deeply preoccupied with affirming its traditional authority against the culturally and politically fragmenting effects of the “German ... More


The Condemnation of Galileo (1633)

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

in Retrying Galileo, 1633-1992

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520242616
eISBN:
9780520941373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520242616.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores the four defining documents, namely the Inquisition's Sentence (1633), Galileo's Abjuration, the Index's Anti-Copernican Decree, and the Index's Correction of Copernicus' ... More


A Border Studies Manifesto: Maciej Miechowita’s Tractatus de duabus Sarmatiis (1517)

Katharina N. Piechocki

in Cartographic Humanism: The Making of Early Modern Europe

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780226641188
eISBN:
9780226641218
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226641218.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, 16th-century and Renaissance Literature

Maciej Miechowita was the first European humanist to challenge Ptolemy’s description of Eastern Europe’s borderlands and to broadly promote the use of the word “continent.” His influential Tractatus ... More


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