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Introduction

Timothy J. O’Donnell

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter introduces the problem of productivity: How do language learners determine which potential generalizations can actually be used to create novel expressions in their language and which ... More


Computational Models of Learning Mechanisms in Psychosis

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Psychotic experiences may best be described as an alteration in the self-ascription of thoughts and actions, which is associated with a profoundly altered experience of oneself and the surrounding ... More


Modeling and Iconization

Inge Hinterwaldner

in The Systemic Image: A New Theory of Interactive Real-Time Simulations

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035040
eISBN:
9780262335546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035040.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

Informed with how modelling practices take place, positions in model theory have revised too simplistic syntactic or semantic views. Analogously, it is now necessary to recognize that also the ... More


Reward-Dependent Learning

Andreas Heinz

in A New Understanding of Mental Disorders: Computational Models for Dimensional Psychiatry

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036894
eISBN:
9780262342841
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036894.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

In the third chapter, reward dependent instrumental learning and its computational modelling is explained. Reward prediction errors are encoded by phasic dopamine release and specific paradigms ... More


Models as Scaffolds for Understanding

Jeffrey C. Schank, Christopher J. May, and Sanjay S. Joshi

in Developing Scaffolds in Evolution, Culture, and Cognition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019552
eISBN:
9780262314787
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019552.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on models as representations of physical animate systems that support our understanding of those systems. The use of scaffolding here differs in some important respects from its ... More


Basic Concepts of Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter covers some basic concepts that constitute the pillars of any artificial chemistry. Starting with principles of computational modeling and simulation, we then move on to some notions of ... More


How Can Models Be Better Utilized to Enhance Outcome?: A Framework for Advancing the Use of Models in Schizophrenia

Kevin J. Mitchell, Patricio O’Donnell, Daniel Durstewitz, André A. Fenton, Jay A. Gingrich, Joshua A. Gordon, Wolfgang Kelsch, William A. Phillips, and Akira Sawa

in Schizophrenia: Evolution and Synthesis

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019620
eISBN:
9780262314602
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019620.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

The heterogeneity of schizophrenia at the clinical and etiological levels presents a huge obstacle to understanding the biology of this disorder, or even knowing how to conceptualize it. This chapter ... More


The Freedom to Choose and Drug Addiction

P. Read Montague

in Moral Psychology, Volume 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780262026680
eISBN:
9780262321488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262026680.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Montague proposes a computational model to understand addiction. His key idea is a special kind of reward prediction error signal in addicts. In his comments, Yaffe discusses what Montague's work on ... More


Establishing Cross-Modal Mappings:: Empirical and Computational Investigations

Pawan Sinha, Jonas Wulff, and Richard Held

in Sensory Integration and the Unity of Consciousness

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262027786
eISBN:
9780262319270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027786.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Whether the world of a newborn is chaotic, with distinct characteristics of sensory modalities, or whether there is order and shared properties between signals lies at the heart of Molyneux’s famous ... More


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