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Before They Became Turks: Immigration, Political Economy, and Identity in the Pre‐war South Marmara

Ryan Gingeras

in Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by taking up the constitution and ideology of the Ottoman Muslim elite at the outset of the First World War. After coming to power in 1908, the newly formed government under the ... More


The Plan for the Homogenization of Anatolia

Taner Akçam

in The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153339
eISBN:
9781400841844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153339.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter explores the fundamental characteristics of the overall plan for the “homogenization” of Anatolia. Having initially devised and implemented a plan before the First World War to free ... More


The Question of Confiscated Armenian Property

Taner Akçam

in The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153339
eISBN:
9781400841844
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153339.003.0010
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter illustrates how the deportations left an enormous amount of abandoned Armenian property and possessions in their wake. This posed the question of what policy the government and local ... More


Revolution

Ryan Gingeras

in Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1908–1922

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199676071
eISBN:
9780191755576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199676071.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter provides a survey of the crises and societal factors that led to the ascendency of the so-called Young Turks, the empire’s last governing elite. It explores the complex background of the ... More


Prologue: Eastern Questions, Nationalist Answers

Donald Bloxham

in The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199273560
eISBN:
9780191699689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273560.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter examines four interconnected themes from the early nineteenth century up to 1914: external political, military, and economic engagements with the Ottoman empire; the development of ... More


Armenian Genocide: Ottoman Catastrophes

Levene Mark

in Devastation: Volume I: The European Rimlands 1912-1938

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683031
eISBN:
9780191763120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683031.003.0003
Subject:
History, Cultural History, European Modern History

This chapter's focus is the Ottoman CUP genocide committed against its Armenian and Syriac populations, in 1915-16. We consider how the ethnic cleansings of the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 helped feed the ... More


The Imperial Origins of the “Turkish Mafia”

Ryan Gingeras

in Heroin, Organized Crime, and the Making of Modern Turkey

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780198716020
eISBN:
9780191784279
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716020.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Social History

To understand the origins of organized crime in Turkey one must look first at the context and the significance of crime and violence in Anatolia during the first three decades of the twentieth ... More


Ethnic ‘Reprisal’ and Ethnic Cleansing

Donald Bloxham

in The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199273560
eISBN:
9780191699689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273560.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Historians of 1914–1916 have sought to address the question of when it was decided to do away with the Armenians. Yet given the history of demographic engineering in the Ottoman empire, a full ... More


Interlude: The Genocide in Context

Donald Bloxham

in The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199273560
eISBN:
9780191699689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273560.003.0004
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Having removed most of the Armenians, and accepted the probable loss of the Arab provinces, it would be left to the Committee of Union and Progress's (CUP) successor regime to continue the ... More


Imperial Germany:A Case of Mistaken Identity

Donald Bloxham

in The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199273560
eISBN:
9780191699689
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199273560.003.0005
Subject:
History, Middle East History

Of the warring European powers, Germany has come in for the harshest criticism concerning its relationship to the genocide. Contrary to traditional diplomatic studies of the Ottoman-German alliance, ... More


The Politics and Practice of the Russian Occupation of Armenia, 1915–February 1917

Peter Holquist

in A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780195393743
eISBN:
9780190254315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780195393743.003.0008
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter discusses the key role of the Russian empire in the dynamics leading up to the slaughter of the Armenian population in the six eastern provinces of the Ottoman empire. It examines the ... More


From Wars to the Great War: A Hero Is Born

M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

in Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175829
eISBN:
9781400885572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175829.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter looks at Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's quest for heroism. As he expressed it in a personal letter to a female friend, he had “grand desires” to render extraordinary services to his homeland. ... More


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