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Phase equilibria

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter extends the discussion of gas phase equilibria to phase equilibria. The central concept is the vapour pressure, and the key proof is that the criterion for phase equilibrium is the ... More


Liquids and Solids

Christopher O. Oriakhi

in Chemistry in Quantitative Language: Fundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195367997
eISBN:
9780197562635
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195367997.003.0016
Subject:
Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry

The atoms or molecules in a liquid have enough kinetic energy to partially overcome the forces of attraction between them. Therefore, they are in constant random motion (as in a gas) but they are ... More


Phase Transitions

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Phase transitions are introduced using the van der Waals gas as an example. The equations of state are derived from the Helmholtz free energy of the ideal gas. The behavior of this model is analyzed, ... More


Thermodynamic Scaling Near the Critical Point

Eldred H. Chimowitz

in Introduction to Critical Phenomena in Fluids

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195119305
eISBN:
9780197561249
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195119305.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Thermodynamic scaling near the critical point is a signature of critical phenomena, and many useful applications of supercritical solvent fluids depend upon exploiting this behavior in some ... More


Radiative and Chemical Kinetic Implications

Adrian F. Tuck

in Atmospheric Turbulence: a molecular dynamics perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199236534
eISBN:
9780191917462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199236534.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

The laws governing the dynamical behaviour of atoms and molecules are quantum mechanical, and specify that their internal energy states are discrete, with only definite photon energies inducing ... More


Energy Balance of Climate

Eelco J. Rohling

in The Climate Question: Natural Cycles, Human Impact, Future Outlook

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190910877
eISBN:
9780197559918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190910877.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Meteorology and Climatology

The Sun is the ultimate energy source for climate. The Sun radiates toward Earth at an almost constant intensity of about 1360 watts per square meter (W/ m2), as measured above the Earth ’s ... More


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