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George Boole and Claude Shannon: Two Mini-Biographies

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents brief biographical sketches of George Boole and Claude Shannon. George was born in Lincoln, a town in the north of England, on November 2, 1815. His father John, while simple ... More


The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Paul J. Nahin

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Boolean algebra, also called Boolean logic, is at the heart of the electronic circuitry in everything we use—from our computers and cars, to home appliances. How did a system of mathematics ... More


Boole, Shannon, and Probability

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

George Boole and Claude Shannon shared a deep interest in the mathematics of probability. Boole's interest was, of course, not related to the theory of computation—he was a century too early for ... More


Some Combinatorial Logic Examples

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

The entire point of Shannon's 1948 “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” was to study the theoretical limits on the transmission of information from point A (the source) to point B (the receiver) ... More


Cybernetics and the New Complexity of Machines

John Johnston

in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0002
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter makes a case for the fundamental complexity of cybernetic machines as a new species of automata, existing both “in the metal and in the flesh,” to use Norbert Wiener’s expression, as ... More


Enemies, Parasites, and Noise

Paul Kockelman

in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190636531
eISBN:
9780190636562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter begins by outlining some common properties of channels, infrastructure, and institutions. It connects and critiques the assumptions and interventions of three influential intellectual ... More


Logic Switching Circuits

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Today's digital circuitry is built with electronic technology that the telephone engineers of the 1930s and the pioneer computer designers of the 1940s would have thought to be magic. The first real ... More


Beyond Boole and Shannon

Paul J. Nahin

in The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691176000
eISBN:
9781400844654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691176000.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Boole and Shannon never studied the physics of computation. Obviously Boole simply could not have, as none of the required physics was even known in his day, and Shannon was nearing the end of his ... More


Visual Perception 1950–2000

John Ross

in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199228768
eISBN:
9780191696336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter looks at changes and developments in the subject of visual perception. The dominance of behaviourism in psychology in the 1950s started to fade as new ideas emerged from research into ... More


Reclaiming Technology: From Information Theory to Statistical Form

Jennifer Iverson

in Electronic Inspirations: Technologies of the Cold War Musical Avant-Garde

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780190868192
eISBN:
9780190929138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190868192.003.0005
Subject:
Music, History, Western

In the transition from World War II to the Cold War, military innovations were domesticated and repurposed for civilian, scientific, and cultural advancement. Information theory is one such ... More


Psychology in the 1950s: a personal view

Alan Baddeley

in Inside Psychology: A science over 50 years

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199228768
eISBN:
9780191696336
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228768.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter is concerned with developments in psychology in the 1950s. It suggests that this period witnessed the demise of Gestalt psychology, a distinctive approach to experimental psychology, ... More


Meaning, Information, and Enclosure

Paul Kockelman

in The Art of Interpretation in the Age of Computation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780190636531
eISBN:
9780190636562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190636531.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter argues that information is a species of meaning that has been radically enclosed, such that the values in question seem to have become radically portable. They are not so much ... More


Information: A Brief Modern History

David Sarokin and Jay Schulkin

in Missed Information: Better Information for Building a Wealthier, More Sustainable Future

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262034920
eISBN:
9780262336253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034920.003.0002
Subject:
Information Science, Library Science

“Information” has taken on new meanings and new significance in the Information Age. The subject has moved beyond the traditional realm of engineering. Encyclopedias and text books that formerly ... More


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