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Introduction: Nature's Bulwark

Charles King

in The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195177756
eISBN:
9780199870127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177756.003.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History

The introduction describes the geographical setting of the Caucasus, highlighting the region's diversity, from high mountains peaks to arid steppe. It discusses the major ethnic, linguistic, and ... More


 Rule and Resistance

Charles King

in The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195177756
eISBN:
9780199870127
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177756.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History

The Caucasus is sometimes portrayed as an Islamic wall blocking the expansion of Russia to the Near East. While the north Caucasus is home to many Muslim communities, Islam was not always a source of ... More


Before They Became Turks: Immigration, Political Economy, and Identity in the Pre‐war South Marmara

Ryan Gingeras

in Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter begins by taking up the constitution and ideology of the Ottoman Muslim elite at the outset of the First World War. After coming to power in 1908, the newly formed government under the ... More


Separatism, Violence, and Collaboration in Bandit Country: The South Marmara during the Greek Occupation

Ryan Gingeras

in Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses the escalation of intercommunal violence during the Greek occupation of the South Marmara between 1920 and 1922. It takes a close look at the roles played by native Armenians ... More


Settling Accounts: Circassians, Albanians, and the Founding of the Turkish Republic

Ryan Gingeras

in Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912-1923

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199561520
eISBN:
9780191721076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561520.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter discusses state policies towards Albanians and North Caucasians during the first years of the Turkish Republic. The war decimated the population of the South Marmara and dramatically ... More


Minority Rights in Iraq

Joshua Castellino and Kathleen A. Cavanaugh

in Minority Rights in the Middle East

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199679492
eISBN:
9780191758539
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679492.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter seeks to examine and analyse the history and legislative provisions to protect minorities in Iraq. It situates Iraq’s minority communities (Kurds, Kaka’i, Shabak, Yezidi, Marsh Arabs, ... More


Defiance and Submission

Ryan Gingeras

in Eternal Dawn: Turkey in the Age of Atatürk

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
December 2019
ISBN:
9780198791218
eISBN:
9780191833670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198791218.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

The Turkish Republic was founded upon the conceit that it represented the unanimity and loyalty of all who lived within its borders. Yet from the earliest stages of the National Struggle, Mustafa ... More


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