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Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The field of Artificial Life (ALife) is now firmly established in the scientific world, but it has yet to achieve one of its original goals: an understanding of the emergence of life on Earth. The ... More


Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Matthew C. Hunter

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Painting with Fire shows how experiments with chemicals known to change visibly over the course of time transformed British pictorial arts of the long eighteenth century—and how they can alter our ... More


Chronology of Science and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley

Mary Shelley

David H. Guston, Ed Finn, Jason Scott Robert, Joey Eschrich, and Mary Drago (eds)

in Frankenstein: Annotated for Scientists, Engineers, and Creators of All Kinds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533287
eISBN:
9780262340267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533287.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

The editors provide a brief chronology of important dates in the history of science in the context of Mary Shelley’s life and important aspects of the novel.


Science in the Basement: Selling the Home Lab in the Interwar Years

Rebecca Onion

in Innocent Experiments: Childhood and the Culture of Public Science in the United States

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469629476
eISBN:
9781469629490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469629476.003.0003
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Companies selling chemistry sets expanded their offerings greatly in the years between World War I and World War II. In their marketing materials, the box design of the sets themselves, and the ... More


Architectures of Air: Media Ecologies of Smart Cities and Pollution1

Jussi Parikka

in Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781474420570
eISBN:
9781474453905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474420570.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

In this chapter Jussi Parikka discusses air pollution and waste as media, data and environmental art created in the contemporary smart city. The way these, otherwise unwanted, elements are sensed and ... More


Introduction: Slow-Motion Mobiles

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Scottish-born banker James Coutts sat for a portrait with painter Joshua Reynolds in the early 1770s. Painted on a panel of unprimed mahogany, the resulting picture is now a wreck. Flakes tear ... More


“Pictures … in time petrify’d”

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter surveys research into artificial phosphorus conducted in the 1670s by leading figures in the early Royal Society of London. Mastered by itinerant chymists from German-speaking lands, ... More


Space, Time, and Chemistry: Making Enlightenment “Photography” in the 1860s

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers how late-eighteenth-century chemical replicas after chemically unstable academic paintings were rediscovered in the early 1860s. Seeking to acquire a prototype of James Watt’s ... More


Art History in/as an Age of Combustion

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The conclusion critically examines one possible legacy for the relay of chemical image-making and its fusions with combustion-engine research examined in this book: the Anthropocene. Noting ways in ... More


The wonder of coal tar dyes

Carolyn Cobbold

in A Rainbow Palate: How Chemical Dyes Changed the West's Relationship with Food

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226727059
eISBN:
9780226727196
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226727196.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

British newspapers immediately heralded the invention of coal tar dyes as a victory for chemists and, in particular, Britain’s William Perkin. While experimenting with coal tar distillations of ... More


Introduction

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The introduction to Artificial Chemistries discusses its root in Artificial Life research before explaining with a simple example from the mathematical area of Arithmetic what we can imagine under an ... More


Optical Devices and Social Networks: 1804–1809

Melvyn C. Usselman

in Pure Intelligence: The Life of William Hyde Wollaston

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226245737
eISBN:
9780226245874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226245874.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes how W. H. Wollaston’s expertise in linear optics led him to design and patent in 1804 meniscus lenses for improved eye glasses which he called periscopic spectacles. He also ... More


Meselson and Stahl

Frederic Lawrence Holmes

in Meselson, Stahl, and the Replication of DNA: A History of "The Most Beautiful Experiment in Biology"

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300085402
eISBN:
9780300129663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300085402.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on Matthew Meselson, and how he subsequently came to make the acquaintance of Frank Stahl. Meselson, a first-year graduate student in the Chemistry Division at Caltech in 1953, ... More


Small deformation theory of species diffusion coupled to elasticity

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents a coupled theory for transport of a single atomic (or molecular) chemical species through a solid that deforms elastically. Consideration is limited to isothermal conditions and ... More


The Great War: mobilising colonial knowledge and connections

Tamson Pietsch

in Empire of scholars: Universities, networks and the British academic world, 1850-1939

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780719085024
eISBN:
9781781705889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719085024.003.0007
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter examines the role played by settler universities and scholars in the First World War. It argues that the war solidified the previously more porous borders of the British academic world, ... More


Oil Palms and the Industrial Revolution

Jonathan E. Robins

in Oil Palm: A Global History

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2022
ISBN:
9781469662893
eISBN:
9781469662916
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469662893.003.0005
Subject:
History, Environmental History

Africa’s expanding exports of palm oil during the nineteenth century were mostly consumed by European industries. Palm oil became an important substitute commodity in the Industrial Revolution in ... More


Medical Care and Medical Education, 1750–1825

William G. Rothstein

in American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195041866
eISBN:
9780197559994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195041866.003.0008
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Medical care at the end of the eighteenth century, like that in any period, was determined by the state of medical knowledge and the available types of treatment. Some useful knowledge existed, but ... More


The Unity of Diversity: Wilhelm Ostwald’s World Formations

Markus Krajewski and Charles Marcrum

in World Projects: Global Information before World War I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816695935
eISBN:
9781452947501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816695935.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter discusses the world plans of Wilhelm Ostwald, a tenured professor of physical chemistry in University of Leipzig who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, ... More


Medical Education, 1900–1950: General Trends and Basic Medical Sciences

William G. Rothstein

in American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195041866
eISBN:
9780197559994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195041866.003.0016
Subject:
Education, History of Education

During the first half of the twentieth century, American medical education underwent drastic changes. Greater costs of operation and the requirements of licensing agencies forced many medical ... More


An Uncertain Enterprise: Learning to Heal in the Enlightenment

Thomas Neville Bonner

in Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195062984
eISBN:
9780197560174
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195062984.003.0005
Subject:
Education, History of Education

There was no more turbulent yet creative time in the history of medical study than the latter years of the eighteenth century. During this troubled era, familiar landmarks in medicine were fast ... More


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