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Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The field of Artificial Life (ALife) is now firmly established in the scientific world, but it has yet to achieve one of its original goals: an understanding of the emergence of life on Earth. The ... More


Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Matthew C. Hunter

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Painting with Fire shows how experiments with chemicals known to change visibly over the course of time transformed British pictorial arts of the long eighteenth century—and how they can alter our ... More


Chronology of Science and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley

Mary Shelley

David H. Guston, Ed Finn, Jason Scott Robert, Joey Eschrich, and Mary Drago (eds)

in Frankenstein: Annotated for Scientists, Engineers, and Creators of All Kinds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262533287
eISBN:
9780262340267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262533287.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

The editors provide a brief chronology of important dates in the history of science in the context of Mary Shelley’s life and important aspects of the novel.


Science in the Basement: Selling the Home Lab in the Interwar Years

Rebecca Onion

in Innocent Experiments: Childhood and the Culture of Public Science in the United States

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469629476
eISBN:
9781469629490
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469629476.003.0003
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Companies selling chemistry sets expanded their offerings greatly in the years between World War I and World War II. In their marketing materials, the box design of the sets themselves, and the ... More


Architectures of Air: Media Ecologies of Smart Cities and Pollution1

Jussi Parikka

in Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781474420570
eISBN:
9781474453905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474420570.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

In this chapter Jussi Parikka discusses air pollution and waste as media, data and environmental art created in the contemporary smart city. The way these, otherwise unwanted, elements are sensed and ... More


Introduction: Slow-Motion Mobiles

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Scottish-born banker James Coutts sat for a portrait with painter Joshua Reynolds in the early 1770s. Painted on a panel of unprimed mahogany, the resulting picture is now a wreck. Flakes tear ... More


“Pictures … in time petrify’d”

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter surveys research into artificial phosphorus conducted in the 1670s by leading figures in the early Royal Society of London. Mastered by itinerant chymists from German-speaking lands, ... More


Space, Time, and Chemistry: Making Enlightenment “Photography” in the 1860s

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter considers how late-eighteenth-century chemical replicas after chemically unstable academic paintings were rediscovered in the early 1860s. Seeking to acquire a prototype of James Watt’s ... More


Art History in/as an Age of Combustion

Matthew C. Hunter

in Painting with Fire: Sir Joshua Reynolds, Photography, and the Temporally Evolving Chemical Object

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226390253
eISBN:
9780226390390
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226390390.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

The conclusion critically examines one possible legacy for the relay of chemical image-making and its fusions with combustion-engine research examined in this book: the Anthropocene. Noting ways in ... More


Medical Care and Medical Education, 1750–1825

William G. Rothstein

in American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195041866
eISBN:
9780197559994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195041866.003.0008
Subject:
Education, History of Education

Medical care at the end of the eighteenth century, like that in any period, was determined by the state of medical knowledge and the available types of ... More


Medical Education, 1900–1950: General Trends and Basic Medical Sciences

William G. Rothstein

in American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine: A History

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195041866
eISBN:
9780197559994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195041866.003.0016
Subject:
Education, History of Education

During the first half of the twentieth century, American medical education underwent drastic changes. Greater costs of operation and the requirements of ... More


Microbes and Minerals

David Rickard

in Pyrite: A Natural History of Fool's Gold

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190203672
eISBN:
9780197559482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190203672.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Mineralogy and Gems

Pyrite consists of two elements—iron and sulfur—but considerations of pyrite formation have mainly concerned sulfur. Iron is extremely abundant in the Earth; in fact, ... More


The Periodic System and Its Influence on Research and Education in Germany between 1870 and 1910

Gisela Boeck

in Early Responses to the Periodic System

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190200077
eISBN:
9780197559468
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190200077.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

In 1895 Karl Seubert (1851–1942) published some of the most important papers by Lothar Meyer (1830–1895) and Dmitrii I. Mendeleev (1834–1907) on the ... More


Chemical Classification and the Response to the Periodic Law of Elements in Japan in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

Masanori Kaji

in Early Responses to the Periodic System

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190200077
eISBN:
9780197559468
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190200077.003.0025
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

The year 1868 is usually considered to be the beginning of modern Japan. In that year the Tokugawa government, a feudal samurai government in Edo (today’s ... More


The Early Response to Mendeleev’s Periodic System in Russia

Masanori Kaji and Nathan Brooks

in Early Responses to the Periodic System

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190200077
eISBN:
9780197559468
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190200077.003.0009
Subject:
Chemistry, History of Chemistry

Mendeleev’s first table of elements, entitled “An Attempt at a System of the Elements Based on Their Atomic Weight and Chemical Analogies,” was dated ... More


Introduction

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The introduction to Artificial Chemistries discusses its root in Artificial Life research before explaining with a simple example from the mathematical area of Arithmetic what we can imagine under an ... More


Meselson and Stahl

Frederic Lawrence Holmes

in Meselson, Stahl, and the Replication of DNA: A History of "The Most Beautiful Experiment in Biology"

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300085402
eISBN:
9780300129663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300085402.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on Matthew Meselson, and how he subsequently came to make the acquaintance of Frank Stahl. Meselson, a first-year graduate student in the Chemistry Division at Caltech in 1953, ... More


Optical Devices and Social Networks: 1804–1809

Melvyn C. Usselman

in Pure Intelligence: The Life of William Hyde Wollaston

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226245737
eISBN:
9780226245874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226245874.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter describes how W. H. Wollaston’s expertise in linear optics led him to design and patent in 1804 meniscus lenses for improved eye glasses which he called periscopic spectacles. He also ... More


Small deformation theory of species diffusion coupled to elasticity

Lallit Anand and Sanjay Govindjee

in Continuum Mechanics of Solids

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198864721
eISBN:
9780191896767
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198864721.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents a coupled theory for transport of a single atomic (or molecular) chemical species through a solid that deforms elastically. Consideration is limited to isothermal conditions and ... More


The Great War: mobilising colonial knowledge and connections

Tamson Pietsch

in Empire of scholars: Universities, networks and the British academic world, 1850-1939

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780719085024
eISBN:
9781781705889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719085024.003.0007
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter examines the role played by settler universities and scholars in the First World War. It argues that the war solidified the previously more porous borders of the British academic world, ... More


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