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Transit States and the Thickening of Borders

Gregory White

in Climate Change and Migration: Security and Borders in a Warming World

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794829
eISBN:
9780199919284
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794829.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter treats North Africa, known in Arabic as the Maghreb. The chapter focuses on Morocco as a way of illuminating the role of transit states situated “in-between” sending and receiving ... More


A New Convivencia

Sasha D. Pack

in The Deepest Border: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Making of the Modern Hispano-African Borderland

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781503606678
eISBN:
9781503607538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503606678.003.0009
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter looks at Spanish administration of northern Morocco after the Rif War. As the physical border between Spain and Morocco disintegrated, Spanish colonial administrators looked for ways to ... More


The End of a Modern Borderland

Sasha D. Pack

in The Deepest Border: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Making of the Modern Hispano-African Borderland

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781503606678
eISBN:
9781503607538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503606678.003.0013
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter discusses the post-World War II reconfiguration of ethno-religious relations that put an end to the modern trans-Gibraltar borderland society as it had developed over the previous ... More


Building Fortress Europe

David Scott FitzGerald

in Refuge beyond Reach: How Rich Democracies Repel Asylum Seekers

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2019
ISBN:
9780190874155
eISBN:
9780190874186
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190874155.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies), Comparative and Historical Sociology

The European Union since the 1990s has been engaged in a unique project of reducing mobility controls between members while strengthening the external borders and then shifting control outward. The ... More


ʿAzafid Ceuta, Mawlid al-Nabī and the Development of Marīnid Strategies of Legitimation*

James A. O. C. Brown

in The Articulation of Power in Medieval Iberia and the Maghrib

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780197265697
eISBN:
9780191771897
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265697.003.0007
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter assesses the development of mawlid al-nabī as a public ceremony in Morocco in the thirteenth-fourteenth centuries, from its origin in Ceuta to its subsequent adoption by the Marīnids. ... More


The Impact of the Enclaves on Spanish–Moroccan Relations

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0001
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter examines the impact of the dispute over the enclaves on the relationship between Spain and Morocco. The extent to which the issue is at the forefront or in the background of their ... More


The Enclaves within the Spanish State: The Autonomy Statutes

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0002
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter discusses the constitutional relationship between the enclaves and the rest of Spain, and their struggle to gain autonomy. The difficulties and the length of time which it took for the ... More


The Evolving Political Landscape in the Enclaves

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter surveys the impact, on both national and local elections, of the relationship between the Spanish community in the enclaves and the central government in Madrid. It examines the ... More


Four the 1985 Immigration Law and Community Relations in the Enclaves

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0004
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter examines the uneasy relationship between the residents of Spanish and Moroccan origin within the enclaves; the growing militancy of the Muslim-Berber communities (especially in Melilla) ... More


The Enclaves: A Migration Gateway to Europe

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0005
Subject:
History, World Modern History

As the only territories that provide a land border between the EU and Africa, Ceuta and Melilla are magnets for would-be illegal migrants to continental Europe from all over the African continent. ... More


The Enclaves: Europe or Africa?

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter examines the ways in which Ceuta and Melilla, given their anomalous and unique situation, are – or are not – viewed as parts of Europe, and considers how these enclaves are viewed in ... More


Gibraltar and the Enclaves

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0007
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter considers the parallels and contrasts between the Spanish enclaves in North Africa and the British-dependent territory of Gibraltar. Just as Morocco wants Spain to transfer the ... More


Conclusion: Looking to the Future

in Europe or Africa?: A Contemporary Study of the Spanish North African Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853239857
eISBN:
9781846313066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/liverpool/9780853239857.003.0008
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This concluding chapter summarizes the main themes covered in the preceding discussions. These include the relations between Spain and Morocco, autonomy statutes, political consequences, community ... More


The Shaping of Policy

Martin A. Schain

in The Border: Policy and Politics in Europe and the United States

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780199938674
eISBN:
9780190054649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199938674.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter explores patterns of policy enforcement of the variable border: where it is enforced and with what effectiveness. Policies reflect intentions to control migration patterns across the ... More


Ways across the Sea, 1160–1185

David Abulafia

in The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195323344
eISBN:
9780197562499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195323344.003.0028
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

There are no diaries or log-books of sea captains from the twelfth century, but there are vivid accounts of crossing the Mediterranean written by Jewish and Muslim pilgrims journeying from Spain to ... More


Encouragement to Others, 1650–1780

David Abulafia

in The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195323344
eISBN:
9780197562499
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195323344.003.0039
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Cultural and Historical Geography

In the course of the seventeenth century the character of the relationship between the European states changed dramatically, with important repercussions in the Mediterranean. Until the end of the ... More


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