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Sadi Carnot

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Sadi Carnot wrote Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and sought to determine if there was a theoretical limit to a heat-engine’s efficiency. He defined what an idealized heat-engine is: heat ... More


Production and economic growth

Peter Richmond, Jürgen Mimkes, and Stefan Hutzler

in Econophysics and Physical Economics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199674701
eISBN:
9780191780066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674701.003.0018
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter adapts and exploits the concept of the Carnot cycle within our physical economics methodology to understand the mechanisms of economic production and finance. Proposed by the French ... More


The Second Law and entropy

Andrew M. Steane

in Thermodynamics: A complete undergraduate course

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198788560
eISBN:
9780191830426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788560.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Starting from the Kelvin and Clausius statements of the second law, all the remaining foundations of thermodynamics are obtained. Heat engines and the Carnot cycle are introduced, and used to prove ... More


Engines and Refrigerators

Daniel V. Schroeder

in An Introduction to Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780192895547
eISBN:
9780191915000
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895547.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The laws of energy conservation and entropy increase put limits on the efficiency of any heat engine and any refrigeration device working over a given temperature range. The limits are independent of ... More


Measures of entanglement

Vlatko Vedral

in Introduction to Quantum Information Science

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199215706
eISBN:
9780191706783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215706.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses how entangled two states are. One obvious way is to consider the distillation procedure, in which the entanglement of any state is quantified by how many fully entangled qubits ... More


Ideal gas processes – and two ideal gas case studies too

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter brings together, and builds on, the results from previous chapters to provide a succinct, and comprehensive, summary of all key relationships relating to ideal gases, including the heat ... More


Basic laws of thermodynamics

Boris S. Bokstein, Mikhail I. Mendelev, and David J. Srolovitz

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198528036
eISBN:
9780191916632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198528036.003.0003
Subject:
Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics

In this chapter, we first introduce the basic laws of thermodynamics and R17the most important thermodynamic functions. Even though many of the concepts introduced ... More


Solar Thermal Energy: Limits and Technology

E. L. Wolf

in Physics and Technology of Sustainable Energy

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198769804
eISBN:
9780191822636
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198769804.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The Sun’s spectrum on Earth is modified by the atmosphere, and is harvested either by generating heat for direct use or for running heat engines, or by quantum absorption in solar cells, to be ... More


Thermodynamic Processes

Robert H. Swendsen

in An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198853237
eISBN:
9780191887703
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853237.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter begins by defining terms critical to understanding thermodynamics: reversible, irreversible, and quasi-static. Because heat engines are central to thermodynamic principles, they are ... More


Large-Scale Forcing by Sea Surface Buoyancy Fluxes

Eric B. Kraus and Joost A. Businger

in Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195066180
eISBN:
9780197560204
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195066180.003.0012
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

This chapter deals with convective fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and salinity that originate at the sea surface. In Section 8.1 we consider the relative influence of oceanic and atmospheric ... More


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