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The Scientific Evidence for Climate Change

Alan H. Lockwood

in Heat Advisory: Protecting Health on a Warming Planet

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262034876
eISBN:
9780262335737
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034876.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The instrumental record shows steadily rising global surface temperatures as the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases increased during the industrial age. Numerous ... More


Pollution of the Atmosphere

Sigmund F. Zakrzewski (ed.)

in Environmental Toxicology

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195148114
eISBN:
9780197565629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195148114.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry

The earth’s atmosphere consists of 78% (by volume) of N2; 21% O2; about 0.033% CO2; trace amounts of noble gases, NOx, and CH3; and variable amounts of water vapor. At sea level, the amount of ... More


Soil-Atmosphere Gas Exchange

Steven K. Schmidt, Ann E. West, Paul D. Brooks, Lesley K. Smith, Charles H. Jaeger, Melany C. Fisk, and Elisabeth A. Holland

in Structure and Function of an Alpine Ecosystem: Niwot Ridge, Colorado

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117288
eISBN:
9780197561171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117288.003.0020
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The alpine, while not extensive in global area, has several advantages for trace gas research, particularly the spatial landscape heterogeneity in soil types and plant communities. This variation ... More


Heating Up and Cooling Down the Petrostate: The Norwegian Experience

Helge Ryggvik and Berit Kristoffersen

in Ending the Fossil Fuel Era

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028806
eISBN:
9780262327077
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028806.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

In this chapter Helge Ryggvik and Berit Kristoffersen argue that even if Norway avoided the classic symptoms of the oil curse, it nonetheless has been deeply affected, first by the sheer wealth, then ... More


Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition

Herman Sievering

in Structure and Function of an Alpine Ecosystem: Niwot Ridge, Colorado

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195117288
eISBN:
9780197561171
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195117288.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

The two most significant elements with atmospheric components that influence ecological processes at Niwot Ridge are carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The enrichment of the atmosphere by carbon dioxide ... More


Introduction

R. M. Goody and Y. L. Yung

in Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195051346
eISBN:
9780197560976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195051346.003.0003
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Atmospheric Sciences

Earth, like the other inner planets, receives virtually all of its energy from space in the form of solar electromagnetic radiation. Its total heat content does not vary significantly with time, ... More


Reactivity of superoxide ion

Donald T. Sawyer and R. J. P. Williams

in Oxygen Chemistry

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195057980
eISBN:
9780197560112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195057980.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

Reduction of dioxygen by electron transfer yields superoxide ion (O2-.), which has its negative charge and electronic spin density delocalized between the two oxygens. As such it has limited ... More


Planet Earth

John Evans

in Elements of a Sustainable World

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198827832
eISBN:
9780191866562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827832.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

The pressure on planetary resources is substantially driven by increases in energy demands that have been mostly met by the combustion of fossil fuels. The basis of the warming in the troposphere is ... More


Chemical and Physical Modification of the Rhizosphere

Peter B. Tinker and Peter Nye

in Solute Movement in the Rhizosphere

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195124927
eISBN:
9780197561324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195124927.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

The term ‘rhizosphere’ tends to mean different things to different people. In discussing how a root affects the soil, it is well to bear in mind the spread of the zone being exploited for a ... More


User Rights and Biodiversity Conservation

Marie Lynn Miranda and Sharon LaPalme

in Last Stand: Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195095548
eISBN:
9780197560808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195095548.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Conservation of the Environment

The management of tropical forests has evolved considerably during recent decades. In the 1970s, the colonial and postindependence emphasis on maintaining large plantations and maximizing timber ... More


Early Geoengineering Governance: The Oxford Principles

Clare Heyward, Steve Rayner, and Julian Savulescu

in Philosophy, Technology, and the Environment

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035668
eISBN:
9780262337991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035668.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Clare Heyward, and Steve Rayner, and Julian Savulescu examine the legitimacy and social control over the research, development and eventual deployment of geo-engineering to reduce human caused ... More


Soil Chemistry

S. R. Juo, Anthony and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0006
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Soil chemistry deals with the chemical properties and reactions of soils. It is essentially the application of electrochemistry and colloid chemistry to soil systems. Major topics include surface ... More


Soil Fertility

S. R. Juo, Anthony and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

In the natural world, plant species evolve and adapt to specific soil and climatic conditions. The productivity and stability of a natural soil-plant continuum or ecosystem are maintained through ... More


Soil Management: An Overview

S. R. Juo, Anthony and Kathrin Franzluebbers

in Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195115987
eISBN:
9780197561157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195115987.003.0013
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

The term “soil management” refers to the human manipulation of chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the soil for the production of agricultural plants. Good soil management helps ... More


Visual Information and Valid Reasoning

Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy

in Logical Reasoning with Diagrams

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195104271
eISBN:
9780197560983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/9780195104271.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Computer Architecture and Logic Design

Psychologists have long been interested in the relationship between visualization and the mechanisms of human reasoning. Mathematicians have been aware of the value of diagrams and other visual ... More


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