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Introduction to diffraction

Peter Main

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This introductory chapter provides information on some fundamental aspects of crystal structures and their diffraction of X-rays as a basis for the rest of the book. It describes electrons, atoms, ... More


Diffraction by a three‐dimensional lattice

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the basis of X-ray diffraction by a three-dimensional crystal and introduces the Laue equations which describe the geometric conditions for constructive interference of X-rays ... More


Theory – the bare essentials

Erich H. Kisi and Christopher J. Howard

in Applications of Neutron Powder Diffraction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780198515944
eISBN:
9780191705663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515944.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the properties of thermal neutrons. Their wavelength (from the de Broglie equation) is well suited to the investigation of condensed matter, i.e., to the study of liquids, ... More


X-ray diffraction: the contributions of Max von Laue, W. H. and W. L. Bragg and P. P. Ewald

Christopher Hammond

in The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198738671
eISBN:
9780191801938
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738671.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The chapter starts with an historical introduction to the topics covered here. It describes Laue's analysis of X-ray diffraction, i.e. how to derive the three Laue equations. It moves on to provide ... More


Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

André Authier

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century: the discovery of X-ray diffraction in March 1912 by Laue, Friedrich, and Knipping, and of the ... More


X-rays and crystals

John Jenkin

in William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199235209
eISBN:
9780191715631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235209.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

A 1912 letter reported a German experiment that appeared to show that X-rays were waves. William discussed it with his son, who then explained all the observed spots by supposing that X-rays falling ... More


1912: The Discovery Of X‐Ray Diffraction and the Birth of X‐Ray Analysis

André Authier

in Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199659845
eISBN:
9780191748219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659845.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter tells the story of the discovery of X-ray diffraction and of its immediate aftermath. The scene is set in Munich, with the institutes of Groth, Röntgen, and Sommerfeld. The story starts ... More


Background theory for data collection

Jacqueline Cole

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the theory behind X-ray diffraction data collection, and reduction. A diffraction pattern is the Fourier transform of the crystal structure, and can be described in terms of ... More


Electron diffraction (ED)

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller, and Peter Oleynikov

in Electron Crystallography: Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199580200
eISBN:
9780191731211
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580200.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Electron diffraction comes from the combined scattering from many atoms arranged in a crystal. Bragg’s law and the Ewald sphere explain where the diffraction spots will fall on a detector and when ... More


The Birth and Initial Exploitation of X-ray Diffraction

John Meurig Thomas

in Architects of Structural Biology: Bragg, Perutz, Kendrew, Hodgkin

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780198854500
eISBN:
9780191888793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198854500.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

A non-mathematical account of the discovery of X-ray diffraction by von Laue and its use as a new kind of high-resolution microscopy by W. L. Bragg is given. There follows a simple explanation of how ... More


Diffraction in the Static Approximation

Andrew T. Boothroyd

in Principles of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198862314
eISBN:
9780191895081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862314.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The basic principles of crystallography are reviewed, including the lattice, basis and reciprocal lattice. The Bragg diffraction law and Laue equation, which describe coherent scattering from a ... More


X-ray Diffraction: The Reciprocal Lattice

J. B. Ketterson

in The Physics of Solids

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198742906
eISBN:
9780191821523
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198742906.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter analyzes the diffraction of X-rays from crystals. The wavelengths of X-rays can be of the same order as the interatomic spacings in crystals. In optics we are familiar with the fact that ... More


X-ray analysis

L. Sawyer and M. A. Turner

in Crystallization of Nucleic Acids and Proteins: A Practical Approach

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199636792
eISBN:
9780191918148
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199636792.003.0018
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

This chapter covers the preliminary characterization of the crystals in order to determine if they are suitable for a full structure determination. Probably more frustrating than failure to produce ... More


Diffraction

Jenny Pickworth Glusker and Kenneth N. Trueblood

in Crystal Structure Analysis: A Primer

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199576340
eISBN:
9780191917905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199576340.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Crystallography: Chemistry

A common approach to crystal structure analysis by X-ray diffraction presented in texts that have been written for nonspecialists involves the Bragg equation, and a discussion in terms of ... More


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