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A Town Full of Dead Mexicans: The Salinas Valley Bracero Tragedy of 1963

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter examines the bracero tragedy of 1963 in the Salinas Valley, the communities involved in and affected by it, and its impact on the Bracero Program and California's Chicano Movement. The ... More


The Bracero Program and the Nationalization of South Texas Labor Relations

John Weber

in From South Texas To the Nation: The Exploitation of Mexican Labor in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625232
eISBN:
9781469625256
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625232.003.0008
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter argues that the Bracero Program, begun as an international agreement between the US and Mexico to fill agricultural labor shortages during World War II, served as a way for agricultural ... More


Patronage and Progress: The Bracero Program from the Perspective of Mexico

Michael Snodgrass

in Workers Across the Americas: The Transnational Turn in Labor History

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199731633
eISBN:
9780199894420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731633.003.0018
Subject:
History, World Early Modern History

This chapter explores Mexico's evolution into the world's premier emigrant-sending nation through an analysis of state migration policies, especially the Bracero Program (1942–64). The bilateral ... More


Racial Meeting Grounds and Battlegrounds During Wartime, 1941–1947

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter examines the conflict between Mexican Americans and a white mainstream that denied them equal treatment, and between Mexican Americans and braceros in a militarized, masculinized ... More


Bound in Tension: Mexican Americans, Braceros, and Undocumented Migrants, 1947–1960

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter examines the attitudes of Mexican Americans toward braceros and “wetbacks” in the Salinas Valley during the period 1947–1960, with particular emphasis on how the tension between them ... More


Introduction

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This book investigates the history of the Salinas Valley to show how agriculture-centered environments and economies affected the politicization of U.S.-born and immigrant Mexicans in ... More


An Agency in Crisis

S. Deborah Kang

in The INS on the Line: Making Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199757435
eISBN:
9780190655259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757435.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 4 supplies a history of the Bracero Program and its implementation by the INS. Upon its inception in 1942, the United States and Mexico described the program in highly aspirational terms as ... More


The Community Service Organization, 1953–1963

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter focuses on a local Community Service Organization (CSO) in the Salinas Valley and how it operated in the agriculture-centered environment of the region in the years 1953–1963. It first ... More


Bracero Recruitment in the Mexican Countryside, 1942–1947

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter renders the U.S. and Mexican governments’ investment in using competing conceptualizations of race and racial difference to recruit Mexican immigrant men of varying class backgrounds ... More


Coming to America

Steven W. Bender

in Run For the Border: Vice and Virtue in U.S.-Mexico Border Crossings

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780814789520
eISBN:
9780814789537
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814789520.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

Reviewing the history of immigration from Mexico to the United States, this chapter reveals that immigrants are lured by compelling economic opportunities and higher wages in the United States, and ... More


The Farmworker Movement in the Post-Bracero Era

Lori A. Flores

in Grounds For Dreaming: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300196962
eISBN:
9780300216387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300196962.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Latin American Studies

This chapter examines the farmworker movement in the Salinas Valley after the termination of the Bracero Program. It first considers the rise of Cesar Chavez and his United Farm Workers Organizing ... More


The Bracero Program as a Permanent State of Emergency

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Using the oral life histories of former repatriates and braceros, this chapter contextualizes the enduring resonance of the trauma of repatriation from the United States to Mexico on Mexican ... More


Awake Houses and Mujeres Intermediarias (Intermediary Women), 1958–1964

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Steeped in the oral life histories of Mexican women who shouldered the emotional, physical, and financial accountability of raising families separated from their bracero husbands across the ... More


The Federal Regulation of the US–Mexico Border

S. Deborah Kang

in The INS on the Line: Making Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780199757435
eISBN:
9780190655259
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757435.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 6 is a history of Operation Wetback, a massive deportation drive conducted by the federal government in 1954. While it is remembered as an apex in the history of the INS, a sign of the ... More


Employment Visas: An International Comparison

Alexandre Padilla and Nicolás Cachanosky

in The Economics of Immigration: Market-Based Approaches, Social Science, and Public Policy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780190258788
eISBN:
9780190258825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190258788.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter reviews employment visa practices around the world and assesses how well they function relative to their goals. It also reviews the United States Bracero work visa program from the past.


Hidden from History: Photo Stories of Love

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

This chapter uses bracero family oral life histories and photographs to historicize the urgency with which Mexican women and men documented their romantic love for each other as a way of not becoming ... More


Mexicali’s Exceptionalism

Verónica Castillo-Muñoz

in Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780520291638
eISBN:
9780520966727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520291638.003.0006
Subject:
History, American History: 19th Century

This chapter examines the impact of Mexican migration to the United States during the era of the Bracero Program (1942–64). It addresses the question of why migration to border towns increased during ... More


Government Censorship of Family Communication, 1942–1964

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Using the correspondence of U.S. government officials and Mexican immigrant children, women, and men of varying legal status, this chapter examines how censorship was used to maintain the separation ... More


In Painful Silence: The Untold Emotional Work of Long-Distance Romantic Relationships and Marriages, 1957–1964

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

in Abrazando el Espíritu

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520282667
eISBN:
9780520958654
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520282667.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Using a combination of bracero family oral life histories and songs of love, this chapter traces the romantic love, loss, and longing that inspired Mexican women and men to be most resourceful in ... More


The Occupational Careers of Ex-Braceros

Sergio Chávez

in Border Lives: Fronterizos, Transnational Migrants, and Commuters in Tijuana

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780199380572
eISBN:
9780199380619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199380572.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies), Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter examines the return-migration and labor-market trajectories of ex-braceros who relocated to Tijuana after the termination of the Bracero Program in 1964. Rather than return to their ... More


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