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Introduction: The ‘Picture Theory of Science’

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The Bildtheorie — ‘picture theory of science’ — formed the frame for much discussion and controversy among physicists in the decades around the year 1900. It emphasizes one aspect believed to be ... More


Electrons and Disorder in Solids

V. F. Gantmakher

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567561
eISBN:
9780191718267
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567561.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book contains modern concepts about the physics of electrons in solids. It is written using a minimum of mathematics, with the emphasis on various physical models aimed at stimulating creative ... More


Validity and Non-Validity of Propagation of Chaos

Karsten Matthies and Florian Theil

in Analysis and Stochastics of Growth Processes and Interface Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199239252
eISBN:
9780191716911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239252.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Analysis

In this chapter a novel, rigorous approach to analyse the validity of continuum approximations for deterministic interacting particle systems is discussed. The focus is on the Boltzmann–Grad limit of ... More


Individuality in Classical Physics

Steven French and Décio Krause

in Identity in Physics: A Historical, Philosophical, and Formal Analysis

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199278244
eISBN:
9780191603952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278245.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents a summary of the history of classical statistical mechanics, emphasizing the underlying assumptions regarding particle individuality. It is argued that the relevant sense of ... More


Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

Nikolai V. Brilliantov and Thorsten Pöschel

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198530381
eISBN:
9780191713057
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530381.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases provides an introduction to the rapidly developing theory of dissipative gas dynamics — a theory which has mainly evolved over the last decade. The book ... More


Theories of Molecular Reaction Dynamics: The Microscopic Foundation of Chemical Kinetics

Niels E. Henriksen and Flemming Y. Hansen

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199203864
eISBN:
9780191708251
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199203864.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book deals with a central topic at the interface of chemistry and physics — the understanding of how the transformation of matter takes place at the atomic level. Building on the laws of ... More


Random Processes in Physics and Finance

Melvin Lax, Wei Cai, and Min Xu

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198567769
eISBN:
9780191718359
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567769.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book discusses random processes in physics, from basic probability theory to the Fokker-Planck process and Langevin equation for the Fokker Planck process and diffusion. It includes diverse ... More


Kelvin and Statistical Mechanics

Oliver Penrose

in Kelvin: Life, Labours and Legacy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231256
eISBN:
9780191710803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231256.003.0015
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Kelvin played a big part in the development of statistical mechanics, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium. This chapter reviews these developments, taking a particular interest in Kelvin's own ... More


Numerical Simulation Of Microflows And Nanoflows

Narayan R. Aluru and George Em Karniadakis

in Micro/Nano Technology Systems for Biomedical Applications: Microfluidics, Optics, and Surface Chemistry

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199219698
eISBN:
9780191594229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219698.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

In this chapter we review recent advances in numerical simulation of micro and nanoflows. For coarse-grained simulation of microfuidics, we present an overview of Lattice Boltzmann, Brownian ... More


THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

Takashi Fujimoto

in Plasma Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530282
eISBN:
9780191713149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530282.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter reviews the relationships valid in situations in thermodynamic equilibrium. These are the Maxwell distribution for speed or energy of free electrons, the Boltzmann distribution for ... More


Identity

Nick Huggett

in Everywhere and Everywhen: Adventures in Physics and Philosophy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195379518
eISBN:
9780199776559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379518.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Quantum mechanics, like relativity, is a pillar of contemporary physics, with remarkable, puzzling consequences. In these chapters some very simple ‘games’ – distributing prizes of different kinds – ... More


Quarticles

Nick Huggett

in Everywhere and Everywhen: Adventures in Physics and Philosophy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195379518
eISBN:
9780199776559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379518.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Quantum mechanics, like relativity, is a pillar of contemporary physics, with remarkable, puzzling consequences. In these chapters some very simple ‘games’ – distributing prizes of different kinds – ... More


Relativistic Kinetic Theory

Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat

in General Relativity and the Einstein Equations

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199230723
eISBN:
9780191710872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230723.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This chapter presents the basic equations of the relativistic kinetic theory; it proves local existence theorems for Einstein equations coupled with kinetic matter. It then provides thermodynamic ... More


Transport equations for the one-body density

Helmut Hofmann

in The Physics of Warm Nuclei: with Analogies to Mesoscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198504016
eISBN:
9780191708480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504016.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter begins by calculating the Wigner transform for the von Neumann equation for the one-body density operator. It shows how the Liouville equation follows in leading order in an expansion to ... More


Temperature and the Boltzmann factor

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter explores the concept of temperature and shows how it can be defined in a statistical manner. This leads to the idea of a Boltzmann distribution and a Boltzmann factor. These ideas are ... More


The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter shows that the Boltzmann distribution applied to gases gives rise to a speed distribution known as the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. It shows how this can be measured experimentally.


Introduction

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This introductory chapter reviews the origins of entropy and classical thermodynamics. It then summarizes 19th-century attempts to explain these theories in terms of the underlying molecular ... More


STRONG COUPLING: POLARITON BOSE CONDENSATION

Alexey V. Kavokin and Jeremy J. Baumberg

in Microcavities

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199228942
eISBN:
9780191711190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228942.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter addresses the rich variety of physical effects linked to the Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons, including stimulated scattering of exciton-polaritons, spontaneous symmetry ... More


CONTINUUM RADIATION

Takashi Fujimoto

in Plasma Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530282
eISBN:
9780191713149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530282.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The intensity distribution of the recombination continuum continues smoothly across the ionization limit to the series lines, the upper levels of which are in LTE. Thus, a Boltzmann plot of the ... More


REPRINT A NEW METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY IN METALS

S. F. Edwards

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents a paper which develops a method allowing for the evaluation of closed formal expressions for electrical conductivity which have recently been developed. The case of a random set ... More


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