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Jesus and Empire: The Crucified

Christopher Bryan

in Render to Caesar: Jesus, the Early Church, and the Roman Superpower

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195183344
eISBN:
9780199835584
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195183347.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Early Christian Studies

Jesus suffered crucifixion by the Romans. Is this because he was a rebel against Rome? Not according to the evangelists, who claim that the Sanhedrin under Caiaphas initially arraigned Jesus on a ... More


Enthusiasm, blasphemy and toleration

Lionel Laborie

in Enlightening Enthusiasm: Prophecy and religious experience in early eighteenth-century England

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780719089886
eISBN:
9781526104007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719089886.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Chapter 5 discusses the trial of the Camisard prophet Elie Marion in 1707 in light of contemporary cases of blasphemy and sedition to consider how enthusiasm challenged the limits of religious ... More


Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Mohsen Kadivar

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

Is it lawful to shed the blood of a man or a woman who insults the Prophet Muhammad? Does the Qur’an stipulate a worldly punishment for apostates? Beginning with a genealogy of religious freedom in ... More


Refuting the Claim of Consensus (ijmā‘) and the Necessity to Implement the Death Penalty for Blasphemy and Apostasy

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0009
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the fourth section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. In this section, these issues are discussed: Examining the Claim of Consensus on the ... More


The Background of the Treatise

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the first part of the ‘The Background of the Treatise’ and has three sections; Section one: Legal rulings (Fatāwā) condemning Rāfiq Taqī to death for apostasy or blaspheming the ... More


Islam: Between the Freedom of Expression and the Prohibition of Hate Speech1

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0017
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

At the outset, one must distinguish the Islam of the Qur’an and definitive hadith reports of the Prophet and the Ahl al-Bayt from the Islam of the “shari‘a” (i.e., the opinions of past jurists ... More


The Language of Progress and the Closure of the European Mind

David Martin Jones

in History's Fools: The Pursuit of Idealism and the Revenge of Politics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780197510612
eISBN:
9780197520765
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197510612.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Scepticism concerning the direction of progress and the policies required to achieve it, exposed new liberalism’s incoherent character. The Home Office’s decision to ignore an intransigent minority ... More


European realities: aspects of the ‘triangular’ relations between Europeans, Muslims and Jews

Amikam Nachmani

in Haunted Presents: Europeans, Muslim Immigrants and the Onus of Histories

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781784993078
eISBN:
9781526128560
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9781784993078.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Middle Eastern Politics

Gordon Allport, the founder of modern prejudice research, observed, “People who reject one out-group will tend to reject other out-groups.” In a country-by-country overview this chapter surveys the ... More


Claiming the Validity of the Death Penalty for Blasphemy and Apostasy is Based on One Deficient “Isolated Report”: (khabar al-wāḥid)

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the second section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. Lankarani claimed: “Killing an apostate does not require a juridical ruling. ... More


Refuting the Claim that Most of the Hadiths on Apostasy are “Mutawātir in Meaning or in their General Tenor”

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0008
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the third section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. In this section, these issues are discussed: Analysis of the Hadiths on Apostasy, ... More


Introduction

Eric Heinze

in Hate Speech and Democratic Citizenship

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2016
ISBN:
9780198759027
eISBN:
9780191818806
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198759027.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

The 2005 Danish cartoon controversy reminds us that provocative expression counts among the most controversial problems of our time. Hate speech bans are widely advocated as remedies, on the view ... More


Introduction

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

What is the situation of religious freedom in contemporary Islam? What are the positions of conservative and reformist Muslims on blasphemy, apostasy and heresy? Are there any substantive differences ... More


Objections to the Fatwa of Assassination1

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the second part of the ‘The Background of the Treatise’ and it is the open letter of Mohsen Kadivar to his former classmate Mohammad Javād Fāzel Lankarānī (Lankarānī Jr.) on 28 ... More


Response to Doubts Surrounding Apostasy1

Mohammad Javād Fāzel Lankarānī

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0004
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the third part of the ‘The Background of the Treatise’ and it is the respond of Mohammad Javād Fāzel Lankarānī (Lankarānī Jr.) to objections especially Kadivar’s open letter on 13 ... More


Issuing a Ruling on the Death Penalty by a Process that Falls Outside the Sphere of a Competent Court, and Subsequently Bestowing upon the General Public a Mandate to Implement it, will Engender Lawlessness and Anarchy

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0006
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the first section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. In this section, the author’s aim is to respond to two questions: (1) can one issue ... More


No One, during the Time of the Prophet, Imam Ali, and the Other Imams, was Sentenced to Death Solely for Apostasy

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0010
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the fifth section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. It discusses the subject in four periods: No one during the time of the Prophet was ... More


The Absolute Cessation of the Ḥudūd Punishments or Those that Necessitate the Death Penalty and Injury, and Suspension during the Time of the Imam’s Occultation

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0011
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the sixth section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. Many of the early and the most prominent jurists opined that implementing the ḥudūd ... More


“Isolated Reports” (khabar al-wāḥid) are Non-probative (non-ḥujjiyya) in Matters of Critical Importance

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0012
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the seventh section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. The ruling on sentencing apostates or blasphemers to death has no Qur’anic basis; ... More


Issuing Fatwas on Killing an Apostate or a Blasphemer Weakens and Impairs (wahn) Islam

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0013
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the eighth section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. There are two levels of impairing (wahn) formulation for deccriminalization of ... More


Alteration of the Subject (mawḍū‘) of Apostasy and Objecting to the Perpetual Applicability of the Death Penalty for Blasphemy and Apostasy

Mohsen Kadivar

in Blasphemy and Apostasy in Islam: Debates on Shi'a Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2021
ISBN:
9781474457576
eISBN:
9781474495394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474457576.003.0014
Subject:
Society and Culture, Middle Eastern Studies

This chapter is the ninth section of Kadivar’s ‘Treatise on Refuting the Punishment for Blasphemy and Apostasy’. It analyses four issues: The Method of Retaining the Permanent Nature of a Legal ... More


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