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N = 1: Diagnosis in Unique Cases

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0022
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that there are actually two intellectual steps in diagnosis after data collection is complete. One is the judgment of the meaning of each individual symptom; the other is the ... More


Statistical Thought: A Perspective and History

Shoutir Kishore Chatterjee

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525318
eISBN:
9780191711657
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525318.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The book examines the distinguishing features of the various contending approaches to statistical inference (including decision-making) that are currently available in statistical literature, and ... More


Elicit Data, Not Prior: On Using Expert Opinion in Ecological Studies

Subhash R. Lele

in The Nature of Scientific Evidence: Statistical, Philosophical, and Empirical Considerations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226789552
eISBN:
9780226789583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226789583.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Ecological studies are often hampered by insufficient data on the quantity of interest. Limited data usually lead to a relatively flat likelihood surface that is not very informative. One solution is ... More


Induction and Consistency

Henry E. Kyburg

in Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147667
eISBN:
9780199785865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147669.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter addresses the question of how a reasoning agent comes to accept conclusions that are based on inductive or uncertain inference. This is an important matter for plausible inference, ... More


Bayesian Meta-analysis

Christopher H. Schmid and Kerrie Mengersen

in Handbook of Meta-analysis in Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691137285
eISBN:
9781400846184
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691137285.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter introduces a Bayesian approach to meta-analysis. It discusses the ways in which a Bayesian approach differs from the method of moments and maximum likelihood methods described in ... More


Bayesian regression structure discovery

Hugh A. Chipman, Edward I George, and Robert E. McCulloch

in Bayesian Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695607
eISBN:
9780191744167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695607.003.0022
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter describes two different Bayesian approaches that illustrate the vast potential of Bayesian methods to extract information hidden in high-dimensional data. The first is based on the ... More


Taking the Prior Seriously: Bayesian Analysis without Subjective Probability

Daniel Goodman

in The Nature of Scientific Evidence: Statistical, Philosophical, and Empirical Considerations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226789552
eISBN:
9780226789583
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226789583.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Decision theory requires the assignment of probabilities for the different possible states of nature. Bayesian inference provides such probabilities, but at the cost of requiring prior probabilities ... More


A Bayesian evaluation of the cost of abstractness

Ewan Dunbar, Brian Dillon, and William J. Idsardi

in Language Down the Garden Path: The Cognitive and Biological Basis for Linguistic Structures

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199677139
eISBN:
9780191756368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677139.003.0022
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter argues that opaque phonological analyses based on abstract elements can be justified by employing domain-general reasoning. The authors treat abstractness in phonology from a Bayesian ... More


Bayesian Model Specification: Heuristics And Examples

david draper

in Bayesian Theory and Applications

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695607
eISBN:
9780191744167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695607.003.0020
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter discusses optimal Bayesian model specification. It examines three methods that may be helpful in moving toward an optimal-model-specification goal. These methods are: an approach called ... More


In the Laboratory: Quantification and Organic Objectivity

Corinna Kruse

in Social Life of Forensic Evidence

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520288386
eISBN:
9780520963337
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520288386.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance

This chapter examines how forensic scientists at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science analyze traces and how they use a Bayesian approach to evaluate their results, that is, how they ... More


It’s All in Your Head: Bayesian Decision Making

Michael R. Powers

in Acts of God and Man: Ruminations on Risk and Insurance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153676
eISBN:
9780231527057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153676.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The Bayesian paradigm provides an elegant framework for resolving problems of uncertainty by permitting one to treat all unknown parameters as random variables and thus impose prior probability ... More


A Bayesian approach to the classification of the Turkic languages

Alexander Savelyev

in The Oxford Guide to the Transeurasian Languages

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198804628
eISBN:
9780191842849
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198804628.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families, Syntax and Morphology

Despite more than 150 years of research, the internal structure of the Turkic language family remains a controversial issue. In this study, the Bayesian phylogenetic approach is employed in order to ... More


Simulation Approaches to Evaluating Alignment Error and Methods for Comparing Alternate Alignments

Michael. S. Rosenberg and T. Heath Ogden

in Sequence Alignment: Methods, Models, Concepts, and Strategies

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520256972
eISBN:
9780520943742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520256972.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the use of simulation approaches to test alignment accuracy, including the root causes for ambiguity, and explores a variety of approaches for directly comparing alternate ... More


Nullifying the Dull Hypothesis: Conventional Versus Personalized Science

Michael R. Powers

in Acts of God and Man: Ruminations on Risk and Insurance

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153676
eISBN:
9780231527057
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153676.003.0014
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The scientific method (SM) is widely touted as the most effective available guide to human understanding. However, it is imprecisely defined and inconsistently implemented. Not only is there no ... More


Inductive Inference: An Axiomatic Approach

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

in Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter focuses on case-based reasoning. It offers an axiomatic approach to the following problem: given a database of observations, how should different eventualities be ranked? The approach is ... More


Introduction

Xiaojun Bi, Andrew Howes, Per Ola Kristensson, Antti Oulasvirta, and John Williamson

in Computational Interaction

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2018
ISBN:
9780198799603
eISBN:
9780191839832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198799603.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter introduces the field of computational interaction, and explains its long tradition of research on human interaction with technology that applies to human factors engineering, cognitive ... More


Introduction

Alvin I. Goldman and Brian P. McLaughlin

in Metaphysics and Cognitive Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2019
ISBN:
9780190639679
eISBN:
9780190639709
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190639679.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

This volume illustrates how the methodology of metaphysics can be enriched with the help of cognitive science. Few philosophers nowadays would dispute the relevance of cognitive science to the ... More


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