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## The Reliability of Witnesses and Testimony to the Miraculous

*Timothy McGrew and Lydia McGrew*

### in Probability in the Philosophy of Religion

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- September 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199604760
- eISBN:
- 9780191741548
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604760.003.0003
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The formal representation of the strength of witness testimony has been historically tied to a formula — proposed by Condorcet — that uses a factor representing the reliability of an individual ... More

## Moment Priors for Bayesian Model Choice with Applications to Directed Acyclic Graphs *

*Guido Consonni and Luca La Rocca*

### in Bayesian Statistics 9

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- January 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199694587
- eISBN:
- 9780191731921
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

We propose a new method for the objective comparison of two nested models based on non‐local priors. More specifically, starting with a default prior under each of the two models, we construct a ... More

## The Logic of Scientific Discovery

*Colin Howson*

### in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

- Published in print:
- 2000
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198250371
- eISBN:
- 9780191597749
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198250371.003.0009
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Applies the results of Ch. 7 to scientific methodology and shows that they give a logical interpretation of the subjective Bayesian theory of inductive inference. This theory is therefore no more ... More

## Bayesian Basics and the Scientific Hypothesis

*Bradley E. Alger*

### in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- February 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780190881481
- eISBN:
- 9780190093761
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0006
- Subject:
- Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter covers the basics of Bayesian statistics, emphasizing the conceptual framework for Bayes’ Theorem. It works through several iterations of the theorem to demonstrate how the same equation ... More

## Bayesian estimation and inference

*M. D. Edge*

### in Statistical Thinking from Scratch: A Primer for Scientists

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- October 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780198827627
- eISBN:
- 9780191866463
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198827627.003.0012
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Bayesian methods allow researchers to combine precise descriptions of prior beliefs with new data in a principled way. The main object of interest in Bayesian statistics is the posterior ... More

## Statistical Inference in Behavioral Research: Traditional and Bayesian Approaches

*Alexander Etz, Steven N. Goodman, and Joachim Vandekerckhove*

### in Research Integrity: Best Practices for the Social and Behavioral Sciences

- Published in print:
- 2022
- Published Online:
- April 2022
- ISBN:
- 9780190938550
- eISBN:
- 9780190938581
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190938550.003.0007
- Subject:
- Psychology, Social Psychology

Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has long been a mainstay of scientific research, more in some scientific fields than others. It persists despite numerous calls across multiple scientific ... More

## Bayesian computation (MCMC)

*Ziheng Yang*

### in Molecular Evolution: A Statistical Approach

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- August 2014
- ISBN:
- 9780199602605
- eISBN:
- 9780191782251
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602605.003.0007
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter provides a detailed introduction to modern Bayesian computation. The Metropolis–Hastings algorithm is illustrated using a simple example of distance estimation between two sequences. A ... More

## Structure and responsiveness

*Peter Grindrod CBE*

### in Mathematical Underpinnings of Analytics: Theory and Applications

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- March 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780198725091
- eISBN:
- 9780191792526
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198725091.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Analysis, Probability / Statistics

This chapter considers what dynamical models might tell about what has and has not been observed. This includes dynamics of opinions and social contacts which are time dependent and fully coupled. It ... More

## Hypothesis Tests and Corroboration

*Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann*

### in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- October 2019
- ISBN:
- 9780199672110
- eISBN:
- 9780191881671
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0009
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

According to Popper and other influential philosophers and scientists, scientific knowledge grows by repeatedly testing our best hypotheses. However, the interpretation of non-significant ... More

## Auxiliary Modeling Procedures

*David McDowall, Richard McCleary, and Bradley J. Bartos*

### in Interrupted Time Series Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- February 2021
- ISBN:
- 9780190943943
- eISBN:
- 9780190943981
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190943943.003.0005
- Subject:
- Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

Chapter 5 describes three sets of auxiliary methods that have emerged as add-on supplements to the traditional ARIMA model-building strategy. First, Bayesian information criteria (BIC) can be used to ... More

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