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Overseas Trade

Caroline M. Barron

in London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199257775
eISBN:
9780191717758
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199257775.003.05
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

The chapter examines the changing patterns in the overseas trade of London between 1200 and 1500. The overseas merchants included the Gascons who brought wine, the Spaniards and Portuguese who ... More


Estonia and Latvia: International Influences on Citizenship and Minority Integration

Vello Pettai

in Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe Volume 2: International and Transnational Factors

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199244096
eISBN:
9780191600371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924409X.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Argues that the Baltic states, mainly Estonia and Latvia, represent examples of the complicated sequence of endogenously derived transition and exogenously influenced consolidation. These democratic ... More


Effects of Climate Variability on Benthic Communities

Jacob Hagberg, Björn G. Tunberg, Gunther Wieking, Ingrid Kröncke, and Andrea Belgrano

in Marine Ecosystems and Climate Variation: The North Atlantic: A Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198507499
eISBN:
9780191709845
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507499.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Climatic variability is most likely to have an effect on marine populations and it is important to understand further the synchronicity between climatic oscillations and the life cycle of benthic ... More


Holland as a Body Politic, II: Seeds of Discord

James D. Tracy

in The Founding of the Dutch Republic: War, Finance, and Politics in Holland, 1572-1588

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199209118
eISBN:
9780191706134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209118.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

Holland's Baltic trade flourished as never before, and skilled immigrants helped revive local industries. But prosperity raised a political issue: should Holland trade with provinces loyal to Spain? ... More


Holland as a Body Politic, I: The Habsburg Era, to 1567

James D. Tracy

in The Founding of the Dutch Republic: War, Finance, and Politics in Holland, 1572-1588

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199209118
eISBN:
9780191706134
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199209118.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

Was Holland a mere collection of towns? Or was it a body politic? Clearly it was both. Towns were divided not just by local rivalries but by repeated clashes over the inland waterway: while cities ... More


The Transitional Years (1851–69)

Wendy S. Mercer

in The Life and Travels of Xavier Marmier (1808-1892): Bringing World Literature to France

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263884
eISBN:
9780191734830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263884.003.0012
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century and Victorian Literature

If the years 1849–50 brought a degree of disappointment in the Americas in the wake of the French revolution of 1848, they also brought a new love into Marmier's life. The first section of this ... More


Denmark, 1513–1660: The Rise and Decline of a Renaissance Monarchy

Paul Douglas Lockhart

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271214
eISBN:
9780191709616
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271214.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

One of the largest states in Europe and the greatest of the Protestant powers, Denmark, in the 16th and 17th centuries was at the height of its influence. Embracing Norway, Iceland, portions of ... More


Hard Times

Nicholas Hope

in German and Scandinavian Protestantism 1700-1918

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269946
eISBN:
9780191600647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269943.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Church History

Opens with suffering and Lutheran spirituality in the Baltic region in the Great Northern War; analyses an unsettled extended family of Reformation church orders and rites (some 351: see Ch.r 8), ... More


Parish Crisis in a Credulous World

Nicholas Hope

in German and Scandinavian Protestantism 1700-1918

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269946
eISBN:
9780191600647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269943.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Church History

Looks at the way parishes and pastoral care coped in hard times (Ch. 1) in the interdependent German and Scandinavian churchscape of the Baltic region. Belief in divine intervention and superstition ... More


The Christian Frontier

Colin Morris

in The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269250
eISBN:
9780191600708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269250.003.0012
Subject:
Religion, Church History

The purpose of mission was seen as the extension of Christian worship and ‘the Christian name’. Scandinavia offers a picture of (relatively) peaceful evangelism, with the protection of the rulers. ... More


Russian Speakers in Post-Soviet Latvia: Discursive Identity Strategies

Ammon Cheskin

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780748697434
eISBN:
9781474418539
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748697434.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Language Families

The political shocks of the 2014 Ukrainian crisis have been felt in many former Soviet countries, not least Latvia, where over 35% of the population are native Russian speakers. At a time when ... More


Older Legacies Before 1800

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius

in The German Myth of the East: 1800 to the Present

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199546312
eISBN:
9780191720338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546312.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

This chapter surveys the important preexisting and premodern history of German relations with Eastern Europe before the advent of nationalism. It deconstructs later nationalist mythologies of an ... More


Beyond Crimea: The New Russian Empire

Agnia Grigas

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780300214505
eISBN:
9780300220766
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300214505.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

Over the coming years the question on every Russia scholar’s, policymaker’s, and military strategist’s mind will be whether a resurgent Russia will seek additional territorial expansion in Eastern ... More


Germany and the Baltic: the ‘War of the Philosophers’

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0029
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

While the decisive split in the mainstream moderate Enlightenment in Germany and the Baltic occurred only with the banning of Wolff's philosophy by the Prussian Crown in 1723, signs of growing ... More


Folklore in Baltic History: Resistance and Resurgence

Sadhana Naithani

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781496823564
eISBN:
9781496823618
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781496823564.001.0001
Subject:
History, Cultural History

Folklore in Baltic History: Resistance and Resurgence is a study of how the discipline of folklore studies was treated under the totalitarian rule of the USSR in the Baltic countries of Estonia, ... More


Government and Philosophy

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of the advent of Cartesianism. It then covers Cartesianism in Central Europe, New Philosophy's conquest of Scandinavia and the Baltic, philosophy and royal ... More


Slavonic and Baltic Folk Syllabic and Tonic Verse

M. L. Gasparov

in A History of European Versification

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198158790
eISBN:
9780191673368
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198158790.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, Poetry, European Literature

This chapter describes the syllabic structure of Common Indo-European verse, which has been preserved in the Baltic languages, Latvian and Lithuanian, with the latter as perhaps the one with the ... More


The Transition Mortality Crisis: Evidence, Interpretation and Policy Responses  

Giovanni Andrea Cornia and Renato Paniccià

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The study focuses on the behavior of mortality rates of fourteen countries in Eastern and Central Europe during the transition period. Mortality rates differ from country to country: the Czech ... More


The Crusading Idea and the Conquest of the Region East of the Elbe

Friedrich Lotter

in Medieval Frontier Societies

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203612
eISBN:
9780191675898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203612.003.0012
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

The process by which the Baltic Slavs and Elbe Slavs, the so-called Wends, were incorporated into the German nation was very complicated. In the middle decades of the 10th century, King Otto I, the ... More


The Mortality Consequences of the Transition to Market Economy in Latvia, 1991–1995

Juris Krumins and Uldis Usackis

in The Mortality Crisis in Transitional Economies

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297413
eISBN:
9780191685347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297413.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Latvia — as well as its neighbouring countries of Estonia and Lithuania forming the Baltic States — enjoyed a remarkable healthcare system resulting in a life ... More


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