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Moral Intuitions, Cognitive Psychology, and the Harming/Not-Aiding Distinction

F. M. Kamm

in Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195189698
eISBN:
9780199851096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Previous chapters have made liberal use of intuitive judgments about cases and principles. The book has also discussed the difference of opinion between some nonconsequentialists and some ... More


The Collapse of Cold War Rationality

Paul Erickson, Judy L. Klein, Lorraine Daston, Paul Rebecca, Thomas Sturm, and Michael D. Gordin

in How Reason Almost Lost Its Mind: The Strange Career of Cold War Rationality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226046631
eISBN:
9780226046778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226046778.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

From the 1970s well into the 1990s, psychological research on human rationality was dominated by the so-called heuristics-and-biases approach as developed by Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky, and ... More


Figuratively Speaking: Revised Edition

Robert J. Fogelin

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199739998
eISBN:
9780199895045
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739998.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Figuratively Speaking (1986) examines figures of speech that concern meaning—irony, hyperbole, understatement, similes, metaphors, and others—to show how they work and to explain their ... More


The Standard Criticisms of Comparativism

Robert J. Fogelin

in Figuratively Speaking: Revised Edition

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199739998
eISBN:
9780199895045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739998.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

There has been almost universal agreement that Aristotle's so-called reduction of metaphors to similes is hopelessly inadequate. The philosophers who have lined up against Aristotle are an impressive ... More


Psychology

Robert G. Hagstrom

in Investing: The Last Liberal Art, Second Edition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231160100
eISBN:
9780231531016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231160100.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter examines the relevance of psychology to the world of investing. Psychologists are concerned with understanding all workings of the brain—the part that controls cognition (the process of ... More


The Sources of Sensory Similarity

Mohan Matthen

in Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199268504
eISBN:
9780191602283
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199268509.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In the Cartesian paradigm, similarity of sensation is explained by the similarity of receptor state; it is shown that this is empirically mistaken. C. R. Gallistel has suggested that sensory ... More


An Account of Similarity

Michael Weisberg

in Simulation and Similarity: Using Models to Understand the World

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199933662
eISBN:
9780199333004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199933662.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter develops the weighted feature-matching account of similarity. Most accounts of the model–world relation draw on logical properties such as isomorphism and homomorphism. In contrast, ... More


Three Views of “Human Error”

Robert L. Wears and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe

in Still Not Safe: Patient Safety and the Middle-Managing of American Medicine

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780190271268
eISBN:
9780190271299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190271268.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

The concept of human “error” was central to patient safety’s rise to prominence. Unfortunately healthcare developed a rather limited understanding of “error” from a complex body of work that had been ... More


Justified Belief and Epistemically Responsible Action

Hilary Kornblith

in A Naturalistic Epistemology: Selected Papers

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198712459
eISBN:
9780191780783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712459.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A theory of justified belief is presented which ties the notion of justification to that of responsibility. A belief is said to be justified just in case it is the product of epistemically ... More


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