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Good Citizens of a World Power: Postwar Reconfigurations of the Obligation to Give

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Boundaries of the State In Us History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226277646
eISBN:
9780226277813
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226277813.003.0008
Subject:
History, Political History

In times of crisis, domestic or international, the capacity of American government has been enhanced by the large-scale mobilization of civic benevolence. Although the New Deal is often envisioned as ... More


Mobilizing a Volunteer Army

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0007
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the American Red Cross's (ARC) phenomenal growth between 1917 and 1918. It shows how the ARC's leaders sold the organization to the U.S. public and worked to define foreign ... More


Rebuilding Europe

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0011
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the American Red Cross's (ARC) civilian relief efforts in Europe after the Great War. It considers how ARC leaders redirected the majority of their funds and personnel to ... More


The Expansible Nation-State

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Over the first decades of the twentieth century, this model of urban governance was harnessed to unprecedented crises, both local and international. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake inspired a ... More


Relieving Europe

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter discusses the American Red Cross's (ARC) civilian relief efforts in Europe during the Great War. Focusing primarily on Western Europe, it examines the initiatives of ARC workers not only ... More


A World Made Safe?

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0013
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter focuses on the American Red Cross's (ARC) humanitarian activities across the globe during the interwar years and in the aftermath of World War II. More specifically, it examines ARC's ... More


The People’s Partnership

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The mobilization for World War Two activated many of the public-private configurations that had been so important in the First World War. Yet there were questions of the actual contribution of all ... More


“Everything but Government Submarines”: Limits of a Semi-governmental System

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The mobilization for the First World War had been organized through a powerful configuration of voluntary associations and national agencies. After the war, what use could be made of these ... More


Making International Humanitarianism American

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the origins of American international humanitarianism dating back to the early nineteenth century, focusing on the International Red Cross Movement and the American Red Cross ... More


Humanitarian Preparedness

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0005
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines the American Red Cross's (ARC) place in the United States in the Great War era, focusing on the eight years prior to the country's entry into the war. It looks at how presidents ... More


Channeling Womanpower: Maternalism and World War I Mobilization

Lynn Dumenil

in The Second Line of Defense: American Women and World War I

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781469631219
eISBN:
9781469631233
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469631219.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This chapter examines women's voluntary associations' role in mobilization. It examining the Women's Committee of the Council of National Defense, the Young Women's Christian Association, the Woman's ... More


In the Shadow of the New Deal

Elisabeth S. Clemens

in Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

The Great Depression brought unemployment and misery on a scale that overwhelmed the capacity of voluntary as well as municipal resources for emergency relief. Government relief efforts were ... More


A New Manifest Destiny

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This book examines the role of humanitarian assistance in American foreign relations. It documents the history of American foreign aid intended to guide the international community in peaceful ... More


“The Yanks Are Coming”

Glenn Watkins

in Proof through the Night: Music and the Great War

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520231580
eISBN:
9780520927896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520231580.003.0015
Subject:
Music, History, American

American entertainers and politicians alike maintained an uneasy neutrality following the outbreak of the Great War in August 1914. In April 1915, the Cunard liner Lusitania sailed from New York. ... More


The Humanitarian Imagination and the Year of the Locust: International Relief in the Wartime Eastern Mediterranean, 1914–1918

Keith David Watenpaugh

in Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780520279308
eISBN:
9780520960800
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520279308.003.0002
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter explores the formation of the idea of the “humanitarian imagination” and how it can motivate action (or not) through the case study of the World War One–era flooding of Baghdad and ... More


The Form and Content of Suffering: Humanitarian Knowledge, Mass Publics, and the Report, 1885–1927

Keith David Watenpaugh

in Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780520279308
eISBN:
9780520960800
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520279308.003.0003
Subject:
History, Middle East History

This chapter discusses the elaboration of a new genre of knowledge production, the humanitarian report, as this genre developed in the eastern Mediterranean, and it links the form and content of the ... More


Depression-Whipped

Alison Collis Greene

in No Depression in Heaven: Religion and the Great Depression in the Mississippi Delta

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780199371877
eISBN:
9780199371907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199371877.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 1 begins with the Great Southern Drought of 1930–1931, which destroyed the Delta’s cotton economy and left its poorest residents starving and its richest in debt. The chapter moves back in ... More


A New Manifest Destiny Revisited

Julia F. Irwin

in Making the World Safe: The American Red Cross and a Nation's Humanitarian Awakening

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199766406
eISBN:
9780190254469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199766406.003.0015
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

This epilogue assesses the nature of the American Red Cross's (ARC) civilian aid as an integral part of U.S. foreign relations. More specifically, it considers ARC's international humanitarianism as ... More


Civic Gifts: Voluntarism and the Making of the American Nation-State

Elisabeth S. Clemens

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226559360
eISBN:
9780226670973
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226670973.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Civic Gifts traces how practices of reciprocity and organized mass benevolence—that is, philanthropy—have contributed to the development of novel forms of national solidarity and impressive governing ... More


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