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Albrecht von Haller as Arbiter of German Medicine: Göttingen and Bern (1736–1777)

John H. Zammito

in The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Haller made the new University of Göttingen one of the preeminent centers of Enlightenment in Germany, not least through the development of his new program of research in physiology. Haller’s ... More


Making Life Science Newtonian: Albrecht von Haller’s Self-Fashioning as Natural Scientist

John H. Zammito

in The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Albrecht von Haller became the most important German life-scientist of the eighteenth century. Tracing his intellectual self-fashioning therefore provides crucial insight into the gestation of ... More


Non-Spiritual Physiology II:: Irritable Fibers

C. U. M. Smith, Eugenio Frixione, Stanley Finger, and William Clower

in The Animal Spirit Doctrine and the Origins of Neurophysiology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199766499
eISBN:
9780199950263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199766499.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter is concerned with the fast development of the notion of irritability during the 18th century. This developed through the envisioning of various sensitive-motive “principles” found within ... More


On the Role of Newtonian Analogies in Eighteenth-Century Life Science: Vitalism and Provisionally Inexplicable Explicative Devices

Charles Wolfe

in Newton and Empiricism

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199337095
eISBN:
9780199373994
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199337095.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Newton’s impact on natural philosophy has been well studied, but little attention has been paid to the role Newtonian “analogies” played in the formulation of conceptual schemes in physiology, ... More


Human and Animal Appetite in Natural History and Physiology

Elizabeth A. Williams

in Appetite and Its Discontents: Science, Medicine, and the Urge to Eat, 1750-1950

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780226692999
eISBN:
9780226693187
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226693187.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Chapter 3 explores the systematic observation and experimental manipulation of animal eating that got underway in eighteenth-century natural history and physiology. Naturalists such as Georges-Louis ... More


The Reasons of a Passion

Thomas Dodman

in What Nostalgia Was: War, Empire, and the Time of a Deadly Emotion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226492803
eISBN:
9780226493138
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226493138.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Ideas

Nostalgia became a thing in the Age of Enlightenment, in the writings and actions of physicians and philosophes who heard about this mysterious Swiss illness. Across Europe and the North Atlantic, ... More


Buffon’s Natural History and the Founding of Organicism

Jennifer Mensch

in Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226021980
eISBN:
9780226022031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226022031.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter describes the continuum between the inorganic and organic realms, which ensured that the language of forces would be applied to organic bodies. This began with Stephen Hales’s mechanical ... More


The Gestation of German Biology: Philosophy and Physiology from Stahl to Schelling

John H. Zammito

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226520797
eISBN:
9780226520827
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226520827.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This study traces the gestation of German biology from the debate about organism between Stahl and Leibniz to the formulation of developmental morphology in the era of Kielmeyer and Schelling. Over ... More


Metaphysical Organs and the Emergence of Life: From Leibniz to Blumenbach

Leif Weatherby

in Transplanting the Metaphysical Organ

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780823269402
eISBN:
9780823269457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823269402.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The chapter treats the development of the term “organ” from Leibniz’s metaphysics through the life sciences of the eighteenth century. Leibniz uses the biological metaphor of “preformation” to ... More


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