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Notes on memory (1945)

Alan M. Turing

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0022
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents fragments from Turing's draft of ‘Proposed Electronic Calculator’. This material is of interest chiefly because of its remarks concerning the universal machine of Turing's 1936 ... More


From Turing machine to ‘electronic brain’

Teresa Numerico

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0008
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter examines the relationships and differences between the various machines that Alan M. Turing developed in fields ranging from logic and the theory of computability to cryptanalysis, ... More


The origins and development of the ACE project

B. Jack Copeland

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter details the history of the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) project. The story of the ACE begins with John Womersley's appointment as superintendent of the newly created Mathematics ... More


The Turing–Wilkinson lecture series (1946–7)

Alan M. Turing and James H. Wilkinson

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0023
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents the nine lectures given by Turing and his assistant Jim Wilkinson from December 1946 to February 1947. The lectures add substantially to the understanding of the evolution of ... More


The Pilot ACE at the National Physical Laboratory 1

James H. Wilkinson

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the pilot Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) project at the National Physical Laboratory. The Pilot ACE had been designed purely as an experimental machine to demonstrate the ... More


Proposed electronic calculator (1945)

Alan M. Turing

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0021
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents Alan M. Turing's report, ‘Proposed Electronic Calculator’. The report was submitted to the Executive Committee of the National Physical Laboratory in February 1946, under the ... More


The Pilot ACE instruction format

Henry John Norton

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter begins with the author's recollections about Alan M. Turing while working at the National Physical Laboratory. It then discusses the Pilot ACE Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). The ISA ... More


Computer architecture and the ACE computers

Robert Doran

in Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine: The Master Codebreaker's Struggle to build the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565932
eISBN:
9780191714016
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565932.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter examines the architecture of the ACE computers in the light of developments in computer architecture over the fifty years that followed the birth of ACE. The concept of computer ... More


Turing's Test

Donald Davidson

in Problems of Rationality

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780198237549
eISBN:
9780191601378
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237545.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Finds fault with Turing's answer to the question, ‘Can a computer think’? Turing believed that if the answers given by a computer and a person leave an interpreter unable to discriminate between ... More


Alive or Dead?

Ricard Solé and Santiago F. Elena

in Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691158846
eISBN:
9780691185118
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691158846.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The classical view of viruses as intracellular parasites requiring available molecular machinery to replicate themselves suggests that they can be considered as some sort of program. In this context, ... More


The Turing Test: The Cultural Life of an Idea

Simone Natale

in Deceitful Media: Artificial Intelligence and Social Life after the Turing Test

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190080365
eISBN:
9780190080402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190080365.003.0002
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The relationship between AI and deception was initially explored by Alan Turing, who famously proposed in 1950 a practical test addressing the question “Can machines think?” This chapter argues that ... More


Turing Patterns

Irving R. Epstein and John A. Pojman

in An Introduction to Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Waves, Patterns, and Chaos

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195096705
eISBN:
9780197560815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195096705.003.0020
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

In the first chapter of this book, we noted the “dark age” of nearly forty years separating the work of Bray and Lotka in the early 1920s and the discovery of the BZ reaction in the late 1950s. ... More


Invoking the Oracle: Perec, Algorithms and Conceptual Writing

Mark Wolff

in The Afterlives of Georges Perec

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9781474401241
eISBN:
9781474435031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9781474401241.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

Although Georges Perec did not make use of computers in his writing, he employed algorithmic processes for structuring various formal and thematic elements of his texts. As a member of the Oulipo, he ... More


Computer Dreams

Chris Bleakley

in Poems That Solve Puzzles: The History and Science of Algorithms

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780198853732
eISBN:
9780191888168
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198853732.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 3 tells the story of the visionaries that first imagined the computer. In the 19th century, Charles Babbage invented a mechanical computer but failed in his attempts to build it. He and Ada ... More


Straight, Gay, or Binary?: Hal Comes Out of the Cybernetic Closet

Mark Dery

in I Must Not Think Bad Thoughts: Drive-by Essays on American Dread, American Dreams

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816677733
eISBN:
9781452948324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816677733.003.0016
Subject:
Society and Culture, Media Studies

This chapter addresses the sexuality of HAL, the psychotic supercomputer in the sci-fi classic 2001. HAL is a brainchild of Alan Turing, the British mathematician who helped create history’s first ... More


Life in the Cybernetic Bedsit: Interior Design and the Homosexual Self

Richard Hornsey

in The Spiv and the Architect: Unruly Life in Postwar London

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816653140
eISBN:
9781452946139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816653140.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Modern History

This chapter looks at the postwar importance of the home and widespread deployment of “contemporary” interior design as an indirect method of domestic social management. It compares the public design ... More


Formative digital and online technologies in news and journalism

Cate Dowd

in Digital Journalism, Drones, and Automation: The Language and Abstractions behind the News

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780190655860
eISBN:
9780190098445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190655860.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Online news systems share some affordances of Turing’s universal machine, especially configurability, but the early generation of web standards enabled data sharing, interoperability, and ultimately ... More


Turing’s monument

Simon Greenish and Jonathan Bowen

in The Turing Guide

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747826
eISBN:
9780191916946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747826.003.0027
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

Today Bletchley Park is a thriving monument to Turing and his fellow codebreakers. This did not happen easily. After the Second World War, the Bletchley Park site went into gradual decline, with ... More


ENIAC and Its Contemporaries Meet the “Stored Program Concept”

Thomas Haigh, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope

in Eniac in Action: Making and Remaking the Modern Computer

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262033985
eISBN:
9780262334426
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033985.003.0012
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Having explored ENIAC’s actual use and the programs it ran the authors shift to a more abstract analytical level. Previous discussion of the invention of the modern computer has focused on the ... More


The First Computational Theory of Cognition: McCulloch and Pitts’s “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity”

Gualtiero Piccinini

in Neurocognitive Mechanisms: Explaining Biological Cognition

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
December 2020
ISBN:
9780198866282
eISBN:
9780191903922
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198866282.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Mind

McCulloch and Pitts were the first to use and Alan Turing’s notion of computation to understand neural, and thus cognitive, activity. McCulloch and Pitts’s contributions included (i) a formalism ... More


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