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Emergence of complex food web structure in community evolution models

Nicolas Loeuille and Michel Loreau

in Community Ecology: Processes, Models, and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199228973
eISBN:
9780191711169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228973.003.00013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Evolutionary dynamics may help us understand the structure and dynamics of food webs. The theoretical understanding of empirical food web patterns faces a dilemma, as it is difficult to account ... More


Who Killed Betty Gail Brown?: Murder, Mistrial, and Mystery

Robert G. Lawson

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780813174624
eISBN:
9780813174655
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813174624.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Legal History

Betty Gail Brown was nineteen years old in 1961. A second-year student at Transylvania University. On the evening of October 26, 1961, she drove to campus to study with friends for an exam. Around ... More


Adaptive Management: Popular but Difficult to Implement

Judith A. Layzer and Alexis Schulman

in Conceptual Innovation in Environmental Policy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036580
eISBN:
9780262341585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036580.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Popularized by scientists in the 1970s, adaptive management is an integrative, multi-disciplinary approach to managing landscapes and natural resources. Despite its broad appeal many critics complain ... More


Archaeology of Identity and Dissonance: Contexts for a Brave New World

Bernice Kurchin

Diane F. George  (ed.)

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780813056197
eISBN:
9780813053950
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813056197.001.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

In situations of displacement, disruption, and difference, humans adapt by actively creating, re-creating, and adjusting their identities using the material world. This book employs the discipline of ... More


The Art of Command: Military Leadership from George Washington to Colin Powell

Harry S. Laver and Jeffrey J. Matthews (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780813174723
eISBN:
9780813174778
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813174723.001.0001
Subject:
History, Military History

The Art of Command provides biographical and topical portraits of exceptional leaders from all four branches of the United States armed forces. Laver and Matthews have identified eleven core ... More


Bayesian Models for Sparse Regression Analysis of High Dimensional Data *

Sylvia Richardson, Leonardo Bottolo, and Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0018
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This paper considers the task of building efficient regression models for sparse multivariate analysis of high dimensional data sets, in particular it focuses on cases where the numbers q of ... More


Using TPA for Bayesian Inference *

Mark Huber and Sarah Schott

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Finding the integrated likelihood of a model given the data requires the integration of a nonnegative function over the parameter space. Classical Monte Carlo methods for numerical integration ... More


Order Out of Chaos: Order in Neural Networks

Peter C. R. Lane

in In Order to Learn: How the sequence of topics influences learning

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195178845
eISBN:
9780199893751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178845.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides details about order effects in neural networks, a commonly used modeling approach. It examines two networks in detail, the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) architecture and Jeff ... More


Phenotype Landscapes, Adaptive Landscapes, and the Evolution of Development

Sean H. Rice

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sewall Wright originally conceived of his Adaptive Landscape as a visual device to capture the consequences of non-linear (epistatic) interactions between genes. A useful way to visualise a ... More


The Past, the Present, and the Future of the Adaptive Landscape

Erik I Svensson and Ryan Caisbeek

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Sewall Wright’s classic Adaptive Landscape has been a highly successful metaphor and scientific concept in evolutionary biology. It has influenced many different research subdisciplines in ... More


Adaptive Psychophysical Procedures

Zhong-Lin Lu and Barbara Dosher

in Visual Psychophysics: From Laboratory to Theory

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019453
eISBN:
9780262314930
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019453.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Vision

Adaptive procedures are developed to reduce the burden of data collection in psychophysics by creating more efficient experimental test designs and methods of estimating either statistics or ... More


Policy Frameworks: Scaling Civic Ecology Practices Up and Out

Marianne E. Krasny and Keith G. Tidball

in Civic Ecology: Adaptation and Transformation from the Ground Up

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780262028653
eISBN:
9780262327169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028653.003.0011
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Three general steps move civic ecology practices from small local innovations to broader policy innovations: giving a label to the phenomenon (in our case “civic ecology”); becoming more effective as ... More


The Software Process

Bruce I. Blum

in Beyond Programming: To A New Era of Design

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195091601
eISBN:
9780197560662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195091601.003.0016
Subject:
Computer Science, Software Engineering

Now that the foundation has been laid, I can turn to the principal concern of this book: software design. I use the word design in its most expansive ... More


A Symbolic Science Of Intelligence

Subrata Dasgupta

in The Second Age of Computer Science: From Algol Genes to Neural Nets

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190843861
eISBN:
9780197559826
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190843861.003.0010
Subject:
Computer Science, History of Computer Science

Human Problem Solving (1972) by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon of Carnegie-Mellon University, a tome of over 900 pages, was the summa of some 17 years of research by ... More


In the Tradition

Bruce I. Blum

in Beyond Programming: To A New Era of Design

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195091601
eISBN:
9780197560662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195091601.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Software Engineering

Fifty years ago there were no stored-program binary electronic computers. Indeed, in the mid 1940s computer was a job description; the computer was a ... More


Synaptic Input to a Passive Tree

Christof Koch

in Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195104912
eISBN:
9780197562338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195104912.003.0024
Subject:
Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Now that we have quantified the behavior of the cell in response to current pulses and current steps as delivered by the physiologist's microelectrode, let us study ... More


Sustainability in Arid Grasslands: New Technology Applications for Management

Thomas K. Budge and Arian Pregenzer

in Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195139853
eISBN:
9780197561720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195139853.003.0022
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

As biodiversity, ecosystem function, and ecosystem services become more closely linked with human well-being at all scales, the study of ecology takes on ... More


Species Diversity, Environmental Heterogeneity, and Species Interactions

William A. Mitchell and Burt P. Kotler

in Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195139853
eISBN:
9780197561720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195139853.003.0009
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Despite their apparent simplicity, arid environments can be quite heterogeneous. From small-scale variation in substrate and slope to large-scale ... More


Quantitative Shifts and Correlated Change

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0022
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Preceding chapters have discussed evolutionary transitions as changes in the expression of discrete, modular traits. This chapter discusses transitions ... More


Gradualism

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0032
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Ever since Darwin, there has been a tension between selectionists and developmentalists over the question of gradualism versus saltation and selection ... More


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