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Advanced Technology Program: Stimulating Competitiveness through Cooperative Research

Albert N Link and Jamie R. Link

in Government as Entrepreneur

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195369458
eISBN:
9780199871018
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369458.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

This chapter describes the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) through which government acts as entrepreneur. ATP's public financial resources leverage private-sector R&D. The use of public resources ... More


The use of caged compounds

Carl Morris and Earl Homsher

in Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

A variety of different methodologies have been used to probe the kinetics of cross-bridge transitions, e.g. rapid force or displacement transients, transients associated with X-ray diffraction, ATP ... More


In vitro motility assay

Haruo Sugi

in Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter discusses the advantages, problems, and limitations of some in vitro motility assay systems hitherto developed by various researchers. Because of space limitation, it only focuses on ... More


The bioenergetics of living cells

Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

in Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198782957
eISBN:
9780191826177
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0024
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Living systems create order, and appear to break the Second Law. This chapter explains, and resolves, this apparent paradox, drawing on the concept of coupled reactions (as introduced in Chapters 13 ... More


The Perplexing Chronicles of Bioenergetics: Making a Living, Now and in the Past

Franklin M. Harold

in In Search of Cell History: The Evolution of Life's Building Blocks

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174143
eISBN:
9780226174310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174310.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

All biological operations require the input of energy. In contemporary organisms, energy is harvested by mechanisms that are essentially electrical. Energy transduction relies on the circulation of ... More


How Do You Live in Hell?

Patrick Forterre

in Microbes from Hell

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226265827
eISBN:
9780226265964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226265964.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

A more technical chapter in which the author describes the molecular adaptations allowing hyperthermophiles thriving in hell. The chapter starts with reminder of the role of water and carbon in the ... More


Energy Coupling

Yas̨ar Demirel

in Information and Living Systems: Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262201742
eISBN:
9780262295246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262201742.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes and elaborates on the energy coupling processes of living systems. First, equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems are discussed, introducing living systems as open, ... More


Condensation Reactions Synthesize Random Polymers

David Ross

in Assembling Life: How Can Life Begin on Earth and Other Habitable Planets?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190646387
eISBN:
9780197559741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190646387.003.0011
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

Over the past half century of serious research on the origin of life, several schools of thought have emerged that focus on “worlds” and what came first in the pathway to the origin of life. One ... More


Bioenergetics and Primitive Metabolic Pathways

David W. Deamer

in Assembling Life: How Can Life Begin on Earth and Other Habitable Planets?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190646387
eISBN:
9780197559741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190646387.003.0012
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

It seems inescapable that at some point primitive cells incorporated chemical reactions related to what we now call metabolism. In all life today, metabolic reactions are driven by sources of ... More


Litigation Rights and the Corporate Contract

Verity Winship

in The Corporate Contract in Changing Times: Is the Law Keeping Up?

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780226599403
eISBN:
9780226599540
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226599540.003.0012
Subject:
Law, Company and Commercial Law

Are corporate charters and bylaws contracts? What is the scope or subject matter of the corporate contract? Is access to litigation part of the bundle of rights that shareholders purchase when they ... More


Energetics of Locomotion

Andrew A. Biewener and Shelia N. Patek (eds)

in Animal Locomotion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198743156
eISBN:
9780191803031
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198743156.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ecology

The energetic costs of terrestrial locomotion are placed in the context of the fuel sources that animals use for generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and how these fuel sources affect an animal’s ... More


Metabolism

Andrew Clarke

in Principles of Thermal Ecology: Temperature, Energy, and Life

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780199551668
eISBN:
9780191847936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199551668.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Metabolism is driven by redox reactions, in which part of the difference in potential energy between the electron donor and acceptor is used by the organism for its life processes (with the remainder ... More


Prolegomena

Steven F. Perry, Markus Lambertz, and Anke Schmitz

in Respiratory Biology of Animals: evolutionary and functional morphology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2019
ISBN:
9780199238460
eISBN:
9780191864056
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199238460.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Developmental Biology

Probably no process epitomizes life more than respiration. By respiration we mean the cascade of energy-producing biochemical reactions called oxidative phosphorylation, powered by a gradient of ... More


Measurements of Phytoplankton Absorption Other Than Per Unit of Chlorophyll a

Mary Jane Perry

in Ocean Optics

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195068436
eISBN:
9780197560235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195068436.003.0010
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

Phytoplankton plays a critical role in determining light fields of the world’s oceans, primarily through absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments (see Chapters 1 to 5). Consequently there has ... More


The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988

Dennis Patrick Leyden and Albert N. Link

in Public Sector Entrepreneurship: U.S. Technology and Innovation Policy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199313853
eISBN:
9780190220976
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199313853.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter argues that the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (along with the Advanced Technology Program [ATP] that it created) is an example of public sector entrepreneurship, albeit a ... More


Roots, Shoots, Leaves, and Grapes

David R. Dalton

in The Chemistry of Wine: From Blossom to Beverage and Beyond

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190687199
eISBN:
9780197559802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190687199.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

As noted earlier and as anticipated by Charles and Francis Darwin it has been argued that plants sense the direction of gravity (gravitropism) by movement of starch granules found in cells called ... More


Ex Vivo MuEtinuciear NMR Spectroscopy of Perfused, Respiring Rat Brain Slices: Model Studies of Hypoxia, Ischemia, and Excitotoxscit

L. Litt and M.T. Espanol

in Biological NMR Spectroscopy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094688
eISBN:
9780197560754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094688.003.0031
Subject:
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry

We believe there are important roles for in vivo NMR spectroscopy techniques in studies of protection and treatment in stroke. Perhaps the primary utility of in vivo NMR spectroscopy is to ... More


Arsenic Life?

Ben McFarland

in A World From Dust: How the Periodic Table Shaped Life

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190275013
eISBN:
9780197559604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190275013.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

In December 2, 2010, at 11:16 a.m., I received the first of three emails from students in my biochemistry class, all asking if I had heard the news. A press conference at 11 a.m. had announced that ... More


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