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ENGINEERING MORALITY

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A framework is provided for understanding the trajectory toward increasingly sophisticated artificial moral agents, emphasizing two dimensions: autonomy and sensitivity to morally relevant facts. ... More


CAN (RO)BOTS REALLY BE MORAL?

Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen

in Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195374049
eISBN:
9780199871889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195374049.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

How closely could artificial agents, lacking human qualities such as consciousness and emotions, come to being considered moral agents? Chapter 4 begins by discussing the issue of whether a “mere” ... More


Spatial Language and Dialogue

Kenny R. Coventry, Thora Tenbrink, and John Bateman (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199554201
eISBN:
9780191721236
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199554201.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

This book considers how people talk about the location of objects and places. Spatial language has occupied many researchers across diverse fields, such as linguistics, psychology, GIScience, ... More


Accelerating AI

John O. McGinnis

in Accelerating Democracy: Transforming Governance Through Technology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151021
eISBN:
9781400845453
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151021.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter focuses on artificial intelligence (AI). The development of machine intelligence can directly improve governance, because progress in AI can help in assessing policy consequences. More ... More


Fractionation of the Supervisory System

Tim Shallice

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter focuses on two supervisory processes: the top-down modulation of lower-level schemas and checking or monitoring processes. It argues that there are processes that come into play ... More


Is the Universe a Hologram?: Scientists Answer the Most Provocative Questions

Adolfo Plasencia

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036016
eISBN:
9780262339308
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036016.001.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

The place of discovery and generation of human knowledge has become a somewhat fuzzy area, and it is at the crossroads of equally blurred disciplines where new glimpses of the future occur. This book ... More


Affective Engineering

Craig Delancey

in Passionate Engines: What Emotions Reveal about the Mind and Artificial Intelligence

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195142716
eISBN:
9780199833153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195142713.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The notion of affective engineering – the attempt to engineer affective systems – is introduced. Shallow affective engineering is defined as the recreation of outward signs or single features of ... More


Commonsense Reasoning, Logic, and Human Rationality

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater

in Common Sense, Reasoning, and Rationality

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195147667
eISBN:
9780199785865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195147669.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that the most important issue for the cognitive science of reasoning is whether deduction provides a computational-level theory of a substantial amount of everyday, commonsense ... More


Conclusion

Gary Smith

in The AI Delusion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824305
eISBN:
9780191917295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824305.003.0015
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

We live in an incredible period in history. The Computer Revolution may be even more life-changing than the Industrial Revolution. We can do things with computers that ... More


Symbols Without Context

Gary Smith

in The AI Delusion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824305
eISBN:
9780191917295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824305.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

Humans have invaluable real-world knowledge because we have accumulated a lifetime of experiences that help us recognize, understand, and anticipate. Computers do not ... More


Patterns in Randomness

Gary Smith

in The AI Delusion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198824305
eISBN:
9780191917295
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198824305.003.0007
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

I do an extra-sensory perception (ESP) experiment on the first day of my statistics classes. I show the students an ordinary coin— sometimes borrowed from a ... More


The 9 Pitfalls of Data Science

Gary Smith and Jay Cordes

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198844396
eISBN:
9780191879937
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844396.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Scientific rigor and critical thinking skills are indispensable in this age of big data because machine learning and artificial intelligence are often led astray by meaningless patterns. The 9 ... More


Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

S. Matthew Liao (ed.)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780190905033
eISBN:
9780190905071
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190905033.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Featuring seventeen original essays on the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) by today’s most prominent AI scientists and academic philosophers, this volume represents state-of-the-art thinking ... More


AI Narratives: A History of Imaginative Thinking about Intelligent Machines

Stephen Cave, Kanta Dihal, and Sarah Dillon (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780198846666
eISBN:
9780191881817
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198846666.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book is the first to examine the history of imaginative thinking about intelligent machines. As real artificial intelligence (AI) begins to touch on all aspects of our lives, this long narrative ... More


Measuring the Intelligence of Everything

José Hernández-Orallo and Adolfo Plasencia

in Is the Universe a Hologram?: Scientists Answer the Most Provocative Questions

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262036016
eISBN:
9780262339308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036016.003.0031
Subject:
Society and Culture, Technology and Society

In this dialogue comprising seven widely diverse sections, José Hernández-Orallo, specialist in AI, reflects on a variety of topics surrounding Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence (AI): ... More


General AI

Stephen K. Reed

in Cognitive Skills You Need for the 21st Century

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780197529003
eISBN:
9780197529034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780197529003.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

People use their cognitive skills to solve a wide range of problems whereas computers solve only a limited number of specific problems. A goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to build on its ... More


Artificial Intelligence: A Binary Approach

Stuart Russell

in Ethics of Artificial Intelligence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
October 2020
ISBN:
9780190905033
eISBN:
9780190905071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190905033.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter argues that there is very little chance that we humans can specify our objectives completely and correctly, in such a way that the pursuit of those objectives by more capable machines is ... More


The Legal Personhood of Artificial Intelligences

Visa A.J. Kurki

in A Theory of Legal Personhood

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780198844037
eISBN:
9780191879708
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844037.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

The chapter scrutinizes the legal personhood of artificial intelligences (AIs). It starts by distinguishing three relevant contexts. Most discussions of AI legal personhood focus either on the moral ... More


Legal Personhood for AI?

Mireille Hildebrandt

in Law for Computer Scientists and Other Folk

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198860877
eISBN:
9780191892936
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860877.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This chapter considers legal personhood for artificial agents. It engages with the legal issues of autonomous systems, asking the question whether (and if so, under what conditions) such systems ... More


Can A Computer Have A Mind?

Roger Penrose and Martin Gardner

in The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics

Published in print:
1989
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198519737
eISBN:
9780191917080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198519737.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

Over the past few decades, electronic computer technology has made enormous strides. Moreover, there can be little doubt that in the decades to follow, there will be ... More


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