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How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?

John R. Anderson

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195324259
eISBN:
9780199786671
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324259.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This book takes its title from the last lecture by Allen Newell, one of the pioneers of cognitive science. He said, “The question for me is how can the human mind occur in the physical universe? We ... More


Cognitive Architecture

John R. Anderson

in How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195324259
eISBN:
9780199786671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324259.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter examines the history of how the idea of cognitive architectures emerged as a way of specifying how the function of the human mind can be achieved in the physical structure of the brain. ... More


Skill acquisition: History, questions, and theories

Craig P. Speelman and Kim Kirsner

in Beyond the Learning Curve: The construction of mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570417
eISBN:
9780191708657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570417.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents the history of research into skill acquisition, and reviews the key questions and theories that have framed this research. Issues include the existence of plateaus in learning ... More


Challenges

Craig P. Speelman and Kim Kirsner

in Beyond the Learning Curve: The construction of mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570417
eISBN:
9780191708657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570417.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents a number of challenges for research into skill acquisition and transfer. In particular, a range of factors are considered that can determine whether a skill will be ... More


From Plato to the World Wide Web: Information Foraging on the Internet

Wai-Tat Fu

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0018
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Generally speaking, two conditions make cognitive search possible: (a) symbolic structures must be present in the environment and (b) these structures must be detectable by a searcher, whose behavior ... More


A Cognitive Model of Information Foraging on the Web

Peter Pirolli

in Information Foraging Theory: Adaptive Interaction with Information

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195173321
eISBN:
9780199893232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173321.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents SNIF-ACT (Scent-based Navigation and Information Foraging in the ACT architecture), which is a cognitive model that implements the rational analysis of Web-foraging within the ... More


Mobilizing New York: AIDS, Antipoverty, and Feminist Activism

Tamar W. Carroll

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469619880
eISBN:
9781469619903
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469619880.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

Examining three interconnected case studies, this book demonstrates the ability of grassroots community activism to bridge racial and cultural differences and effect social change. Drawing on an ... More


The Path to Gay Rights: How Activism and Coming Out Changed Public Opinion

Jeremiah J. Garretson

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781479822133
eISBN:
9781479824236
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479822133.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

Why Tolerance Triumphed is the first accessible, data-driven account of how the LGBTQ movement achieved its most unexpected victory---the liberalization of mass opinion on gay rights. The current ... More


How Smart Forgetting Helps Heuristic Inference

Lael J. Schooler, Ralph Hertwig, and Stefan M. Herzog

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0039
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Theorists ranging from William James (1890) to some contemporary psychologists have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of ... More


Vanguard

Joseph R. Fitzgerald

in The Struggle Is Eternal: Gloria Richardson and Black Liberation

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780813176499
eISBN:
9780813176529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813176499.003.0010
Subject:
History, Social History

Richardson’s influence on the development of Black Power through ACT, an organization she cofounded with other radical activists in 1964, is the focus of this chapter. ACT’s goal was to provide aid ... More


A Rational Analysis and Computational Cognitive Model of the Scatter/Gather Document Cluster Browser

Peter Pirolli

in Information Foraging Theory: Adaptive Interaction with Information

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195173321
eISBN:
9780199893232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173321.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents a rational analysis and computational cognitive model of an interactive document clustering and browsing technique called Scatter/Gather. The approach addresses (a) what ... More


Fluency Heuristic: A Model of How the Mind Exploits a By-Product of Information Retrieval

Ralph Hertwig, Stefan M. Herzog, Lael J. Schooler, and Torsten Reimer

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Boundedly rational heuristics for inference can be surprisingly accurate and frugal for several reasons. They can exploit environmental structures, co-opt complex capacities, and elude effortful ... More


How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference

Lael J. Schooler and Ralph Hertwig

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Some theorists, ranging from W. James (1890) to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The chapter elaborates on the notion of beneficial ... More


Phonemic, sensory, and motor representations in an action-based neurocomputational model of speech production

Bernd J. Kröger, Peter Birkholz, Anja Lowit, and Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube

in Speech Motor Control: New developments in basic and applied research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199235797
eISBN:
9780191696671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235797.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter introduces an action-based neurocomputational model of speech production (ACT) comprising a high-quality articulatory-acoustic speech synthesizer as a front-end module. Some basic ... More


Using Brain Imaging to Guide the Development of a Cognitive Architecture

John R. Anderson

in Integrated Models of Cognitive Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195189193
eISBN:
9780199847457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189193.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used as a way to test and extend the ACT-R (adaptive control of thought-rational) theory. This chapter describes a new modeling effort that illustrates ... More


Women and the ACT, 1933–59

Frances C. Galt

in Women's Activism Behind the Screens: Trade Unions and Gender Inequality in the British Film and Television Industries

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9781529206296
eISBN:
9781529214475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529206296.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter examines the relationship between women and the Association of Cine-Technicians (ACT) in the first three decades of the union’s history, between 1933 and 1959, to argue that a profoundly ... More


. Theories of Cognition

Chris Eliasmith

in How to Build a Brain: A Neural Architecture for Biological Cognition

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199794546
eISBN:
9780199345236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794546.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

Chapter 9 applies the criteria introduced in chapter 8 to several recent approaches to modeling biological cognition. Each approach is first introduced to highlight past accomplishments and ... More


The Spread and Intensification of Gay and Lesbian Identities

Jeremiah J. Garretson

in The Path to Gay Rights: How Activism and Coming Out Changed Public Opinion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9781479822133
eISBN:
9781479824236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479822133.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

The historical narrative of the book starts in this chapter through a recap of the primary events in LGBTQ movement history in the United States leading up to the 1990s. The origin of the concept of ... More


Turn Anger, Fear, Grief into Action: ACT UP New York

Tamar W. Carroll

in Mobilizing New York: AIDS, Antipoverty, and Feminist Activism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469619880
eISBN:
9781469619903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469619880.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter demonstrates how ACT UP created a supportive queer community for people infected by HIV, as well as how the group changed the nation's response to the AIDS crisis. Through its art and ... More


It Saved My Life: Creating Queer Politics

Tamar W. Carroll

in Mobilizing New York: AIDS, Antipoverty, and Feminist Activism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9781469619880
eISBN:
9781469619903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469619880.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Urban and Rural Studies

This chapter explores coalition between two reproductive rights activist groups—ACT UP and WHAM!. The two work for improved prevention and treatment for HIV/AIDS, and support women's rights to bodily ... More


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