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The 1899 Martens Clause and the 1949 IV Geneva Convention

Helen M. Kinsella

in The Image before the Weapon: A Critical History of the Distinction between Combatant and Civilian

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801449031
eISBN:
9780801460784
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801449031.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter gives an overview of the 1949 IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, which reflected the treatment of civilians during the Spanish Civil War, ... More


Naval Warfare: Prize Money and Blood Money

Nicholas R. Parrillo

in Against the Profit Motive: The Salary Revolution in American Government, 1780-1940

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780300176582
eISBN:
9780300187304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300176582.003.0010
Subject:
Law, Legal History

For a long time, the US government made its naval officers eligible for two kinds of bounties, shares in the proceeds from enemy merchant vessels and cargo they captured (prize money) and rewards ... More


Codification of a Law of Occupation

Peter M. R. Stirk

in A History of Military Occupation from 1792 to 1914

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780748675999
eISBN:
9781474418676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748675999.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Conflict Politics and Policy

The chapter sets the emergence of a treaty based international law of occupation in the context of reactions to the Franco-German war and wider processes of legal codification. It shows how the key ... More


Converging Worlds: Sāmoa and Europe Clash (1883–1909)

Patricia O'Brien

in Tautai: Samoa, World History, and the Life of Ta'isi O. F. Nelson

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780824866532
eISBN:
9780824875664
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824866532.003.0001
Subject:
Society and Culture, Pacific Studies

This chapter sets out the backstory of how Ta’isi was born to a Swedish father and a Sāmoan mother in 1883. It presents a sweeping history of nineteenth-century Pacific history and how this ... More


US Torture of Prisoners of War in Historical Perspective: The Role of Delegitimization

Christopher J. Einolf

in Confronting Torture: Essays on the Ethics, Legality, History, and Psychology of Torture Today

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780226529387
eISBN:
9780226529554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226529554.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter looks at US willingness to use torture as a means of combat, and the conditions under which its leaders and soldiers have thought torture legitimate. Prior to the US’s wars in Iraq and ... More


Contested Frontiers: Territory and Power in Euclides da Cunha’s Amazonian Texts

Cinthya Torres

in Intimate Frontiers: A Literary Geography of the Amazon

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781786941831
eISBN:
9781789623598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781786941831.003.0004
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This essay explores the political and discursive mechanisms Brazilian writer Da Cunha employs to build a historical past for Brazil in the Amazon, while simultaneously discrediting Bolivia and Peru’s ... More


Beyond the Ethnographic Other: Pan-African Activism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Thomas E. Smith

in Deferred Dreams, Defiant Struggles: Critical Perspectives on Blackness, Belonging, and Civil Rights

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9781786940339
eISBN:
9781786945006
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.3828/liverpool/9781786940339.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

Chapter details how the proliferation of imperial progressivism in transatlantic reformer discourse was seized upon by Pan-African activists at the turn of the twentieth century, in order to ... More


A Moral Revolution at Mazorra, 1899–1902

Jennifer L. Lambe

in Madhouse: Psychiatry and Politics in Cuban History

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781469631028
eISBN:
9781469631042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469631028.003.0002
Subject:
History, Latin American History

Chapter 1 examines the massive reconstruction effort undertaken at Mazorra at the end of the Cuban independence war. In particular, it examines the collaboration between U.S. occupying forces and ... More


Character, Sacrifice, and Scapegoats: Boer War Fiction

Steve Attridge

in Sacrifice and Modern War Literature: The Battle of Waterloo to the War on Terror

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198806516
eISBN:
9780191844126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198806516.003.0006
Subject:
Literature, World Literature

While Lord Kitchener was lauded at home for his self-sacrificial qualities, in the field he implemented scorched-earth policies and pioneered the use of concentration camps. Writers including Rudyard ... More


The Growth of Peace Consciousness: From the Enlightenment to The Hague

John Gittings

in The Glorious Art of Peace: From the Iliad to Iraq

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199575763
eISBN:
9780191804458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199575763.003.0006
Subject:
History, Military History

The rise of the nation-state along with the revolution in military technique prompted peace thinkers of the Enlightenment to take the first steps towards serious consideration of an international ... More


Yelling the Yellows

Vincent DiGirolamo

in Crying the News: A History of America's Newsboys

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780195320251
eISBN:
9780190933258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195320251.003.0010
Subject:
History, Cultural History

The 1890s were the heyday of America’s newsboys. The nation’s newspapers rose in number and circulation and its cities swelled with poor immigrant families in need of extra income. African Americans ... More


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