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Introduction

Gang Zhao

in The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836436
eISBN:
9780824871192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.003.0001
Subject:
History, Asian History

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the series of decisions that were made in the year 1684 which proved momentous in the history of Chinese foreign trade. First, the maritime trade ban ... More


Enriching the State by Cherishing Private Trade: The Kangxi Emperor and the 1684 Open Trade Policy

Gang Zhao

in The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836436
eISBN:
9780824871192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.003.0005
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter describes how the Kangxi emperor arrived at his decision to encourage private overseas trade. In dealing with the issue of overseas trade, Kangxi supported the pursuit of profit and made ... More


Western Merchants, Local Interests, and Christian Penetration: A New Interpretation of the Canton System

Gang Zhao

in The Qing Opening to the Ocean: Chinese Maritime Policies, 1684-1757

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780824836436
eISBN:
9780824871192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Hawai'i Press
DOI:
10.21313/hawaii/9780824836436.003.0010
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter argues that it is wrong to treat the Canton system as proof that China's rulers wished to cut the country off from the outside world; the policy grew out of concerns about Christian ... More


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