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External Liberalization, Economic Performance, and Distribution in Malaysia

Matias Vernengo

in External Liberalization in Asia, Post-Socialist Europe, and Brazil

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195189322
eISBN:
9780199783823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189322.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter examines the growth and distributional impacts of Malaysia's policy of maintaining open current and capital accounts. Malaysia's external liberalization policy initiatives are described. ... More


 External Liberalization, Growth, and Distribution in China

Shantong Li

in External Liberalization in Asia, Post-Socialist Europe, and Brazil

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195189322
eISBN:
9780199783823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189322.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter examines the effects of external liberalization on China's economic growth, employment, and income distribution. The sections are organized as follows. Section 1 describes China's macro ... More


Negotiating Forum

Bernard M. Hoekman and Michel M. Kostecki

in The Political Economy of the World Trading System: WTO and Beyond

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294313
eISBN:
9780191596445
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829431X.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

An analysis is made of the role of the WTO (World Trade Organization) as a forum for negotiations. Special attention is given to the concept of reciprocity, since this is a central element of ... More


Consequences for the International Trading System

Richard Pomfret

in The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248872
eISBN:
9780191596797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248877.003.0018
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Examines the systemic effects of RTAs on the global economy. Discusses why RTAs tend to proliferate as well as why the multilateral trading system's basis in non‐discriminatory trade policies is ... More


Why PTAs Are a Pox on the World Trading System

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The worries over preferential trade agreements (PTAs) have increased dramatically in the past two decades as PTAs have proliferated. This chapter discusses the consequences of complexity of the ... More


Trade Liberalization, Employment Flows, and Wage Inequality in Brazil

Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Phillippe G. Leite, and Matthew Wai‐Poi

in The Poor under Globalization in Asia, Latin America, and Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199584758
eISBN:
9780191594533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199584758.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental, International

Using nationally representative, economy‐wide data, this chapter investigates the relative importance of trade‐mandated effects on industry wage premiums; industry and economy‐wide skill premiums; ... More


Why Has the Pandemic Broken Out?

Jagdish Bhagwati

in Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195331653
eISBN:
9780199851850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331653.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

It is important to first understand that few lay people and policy makers can appreciate the critical difference between preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and genuine multilateral, ... More


Introduction

A. Estevadeordal and K. Suominen

in The Sovereign Remedy?: Trade Agreements in a Globalizing World

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199550159
eISBN:
9780191720253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550159.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Trade debates are intricately and explicitly connected to the other headline-makers. Indeed, trade and the rapidly proliferating preferential trading arrangements (PTAs) have not only aroused ... More


The Exchange Rate, Trade Policy, and the Current Account

W. Max Corden

in Trade Policy and Economic Welfare

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198775348
eISBN:
9780191715471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198775342.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

A simple model that shows the relationship between the real exchange rate and tariffs is presented. In general, unilateral trade liberalization requires depreciation. The concepts of exchange rate ... More


Preferential Trade Agreements and the World Trade System: A Multilateralist View

Pravin Krishna

in Globalization in an Age of Crisis: Multilateral Economic Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780226030753
eISBN:
9780226030890
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226030890.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

After several decades a reasonable assessment of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) can be made using evidence drawn from a broad sample of experiences. The results are mixed, but there is doubt ... More


Regionalization of World Trade and Currencies: Economics and Politics

Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Drawing on earlier econometric results, this chapter explores the effects that regional economic arrangements concerning currencies have had on bilateral trade. It considers economic welfare effects ... More


Global Issues

Richard Pomfret

in The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199248872
eISBN:
9780191596797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199248877.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Section 1 of this chapter investigates whether RTAs have led to increased regionalization of world trade. Section 2 reports on studies using CGE models to identify gainers and losers from the spread ... More


Regional vs. Multilateral Trade Liberalization

Kent Jones

in Reconstructing the World Trade Organization for the 21st Century: An Institutional Approach

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780199366040
eISBN:
9780199366071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199366040.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The number of regional trade agreements (RTAs) has grown sharply in recent years, and they are the main alternative to World Trade Organization (WTO) trade agreements. RTAs are inherently ... More


Optimal Tariff Dismantling 1

W. Max Corden

in Trade Policy and Economic Welfare

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198775348
eISBN:
9780191715471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198775342.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Various partial trade liberalization (tariff reduction) policies in the presence of specific constraints are analysed. Some tariffs may not be alterable—the ‘concertina method’ (the high tariffs ... More


Preferential Trade Agreements: An Exploration into Emerging Issues in India’s Changing Trade Policy Landscape

Smitha Francis

in Economics: Volume 2: India and the International Economy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780199458943
eISBN:
9780199086894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199458943.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International, Development, Growth, and Environmental

In the context of the comprehensive preferential trade agreements (PTAs) signed by India since the mid-2000s, which include liberalization commitments in agriculture, services, and investments, in ... More


Trade and Employment in India

Sumangala Damodaran

in Economics: Volume 2: India and the International Economy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780199458943
eISBN:
9780199086894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199458943.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International, Development, Growth, and Environmental

From the late 1970s, theorists of economic liberalization have argued for positive growth, allocative efficiency, and employment effects of reforms in various markets, of which the labour market and ... More


The Role of History in Bilateral Trade Flows

Barry Eichengreen and Douglas A. Irwin

in The Regionalization of the World Economy

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226259956
eISBN:
9780226260228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226260228.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The rise of regionalism continues to pose challenges for specialists in international trade. One classic question is that concerning the aggregate welfare effects of regional trade liberalization. ... More


India’s Experience with Export-led Growth

Ananya Ghosh Dastidar

in Economics: Volume 2: India and the International Economy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780199458943
eISBN:
9780199086894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199458943.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter examines the role of export-led growth in the Indian context, placing it in context of overall industrialization strategy and trade policy, as it underscores key elements affecting ... More


IMF Structural Programs

Morris Goldstein, Timothy F. Geithner, Paul Keating, and Yung Chul Park

in Economic and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226241098
eISBN:
9780226241104
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226241104.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter examines the role of structural policies in International Monetary Fund (IMF) supported adjustment programs on financial crises in emerging market economies. Structural policies are ... More


Regional Trade Agreements and Procurement Rules: Facilitators or Hindrances?

Robert D. Anderson, Anna Caroline Müller, and Philippe Pelletier

in The Internationalization of Government Procurement Regulation

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198796749
eISBN:
9780191837975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796749.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics, International

Government procurement is of considerable importance as an element of economic activity. Yet, government procurement has been effectively carved out of the main multilateral rules of the WTO system. ... More


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