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Sex Equality

Alec Stone Sweet

in The Judicial Construction of Europe

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199275533
eISBN:
9780191602009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019927553X.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The evolution is charted, through adjudication, of the rules governing sex equality in European Community (EC) law. The first section, ‘The Normative Structure’, provides an overview of the Treaty of ... More


The Constitution: Its Theory and Interpretation

Geoffrey Marshall

in The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263198
eISBN:
9780191734755
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263198.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

This chapter examines the theory of the British constitution, providing a definition of constitution and describing what theories about the constitution have been held in Britain. It explains that ... More


Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Edward C. Page

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

Have bureaucrats taken over the decision-making role of politicians? This book offers a direct assessment of the role of bureaucrats in policy-making by analysing how they shape policy in making ... More


Silence, Conflict, and Bureaucratic Power

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

In modern government the work of others is often passed off as the work of its political leaders. Governments make thousands of policy decisions each year, few of which make headlines and politicians ... More


Britain: Bureaucrats and Imaginary Ministers

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

While ministers in the UK can and do issue direct commands to bureaucrats developing policy detail, such interventions are indeed rare and the key mechanism of political control lies in the ... More


Regulated Bureaucratic Politics in the European Union

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

The EU Commission is commonly held to be staffed by powerful bureaucrats. Their power is not evident in the development of decrees. In some types of decrees, above all those that the Commission can ... More


France: A Cross-Pressured Bureaucracy

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

Bureaucratic involvement in the development of everyday policy is certainly not unexpected in France since it is supposed to be a ‘statist’ country. Less expected was the great importance of interest ... More


Germany: Administration and Politics Revisited

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

The separation of ‘politics’ from ‘administration’ often features in accounts of the German bureaucracy. A variety of ‘legalistic’ procedural mechanisms, above all the Gemeinsame Geschäftsordnung der ... More


Bureaucrats, Politicians, Choice, and Motivation

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

Much of the time, politicians are only sporadically involved in making everyday policy. When they do become involved it is frequently at the invitation of the bureaucrats involved. The political ... More


Political Leadership in US Bureaucracy

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

Despite our expectations that the US system is more likely to involve politicians in legislative activity than European countries, few of the decrees in the study were actually initiated by ... More


Sweden: Political Direction and Decree-Making

Edward Page

in Policy Without Politicians: Bureaucratic Influence in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199645138
eISBN:
9780191745157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199645138.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics, Comparative Politics

Bureaucrats have not been especially pivotal actors in accounts of the deliberative processes that characterize the ‘Swedish Model’. From the perspective of the officials involved in writing our ... More


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