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VISUAL SEARCH

John M. Findlay

in Active Vision: The Psychology of Looking and Seeing

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198524793
eISBN:
9780191711817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524793.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter is concerned with the process of finding a visual target amongst other distractor items. It starts with a discussion of traditional theories of visual search, including Feature ... More


Beyond Similarity

Sam Glucksberg

in Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195111095
eISBN:
9780199872107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195111095.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter addresses the traditional pragmatic view that metaphors are understood as implicit comparisons, i.e., as similes. This position, as well as the salience imbalance proposal that ... More


Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

Hannah S. Locke and Todd S. Braver

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Motivation is an important component of self-regulation that helps set the effort level an organism is willing to expend to achieve a desired goal. However, motivation is an elusive concept in ... More


The End of the End of Ideology

John T. Jost

in Ideology, Psychology, and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199737512
eISBN:
9780199918638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737512.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The “end of ideology” was declared by social scientists in the aftermath of World War II. They argued that ordinary citizens lack meaningful, coherent political attitudes that could be classified as ... More


Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants

Richard N. Aslin

in Infant Perception and Cognition: Recent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195366709
eISBN:
9780199863969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Vision

Younger and Cohen established a “statistical” approach to visual category formation by asking whether infants are sensitive to the correlations among features in five-feature objects. Their results ... More


On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Rachel Giora

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

How do we learn to produce and comprehend non-literal language? Competing theories have only partially accounted for the variety of language comprehension evoked in metaphor, irony, and jokes. This ... More


Prologue

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter explains the objective of this book, which is to explore the effect of accessible meanings on speech production and comprehension. This book examines the influence of meaning of ... More


Salience and Context

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter aims to point out some of the factors that make meanings unavoidable and to determine the role of salience in language comprehension and production. It explains that salience is not an ... More


Lexical Access

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the influence of lexical access on language comprehension and production and investigates how salience affects ambiguity resolution vis-a-vis contextual information. It explains ... More


Irony

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the interpretation of irony and its role in language comprehension and production. It evaluates various theories of irony and summarizes the predictions of these theories ... More


Jokes

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the role of jokes in language comprehension and production. It analyses the role of salience and the suppression assumption within the framework of the Graded Salience ... More


Evidence from Other Research

Rachel Giora

in On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195136166
eISBN:
9780199846993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the findings of other research concerning comprehension of literal and nonliteral language. The result suggests that language comprehension is best explained by the Graded ... More


Distinctiveness and Memory: Comments and a Point of View

Fergus I. M. Craik

in Distinctiveness and Memory

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195169669
eISBN:
9780199847563
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Reed Hunt remarked that whereas it seems intuitively obvious that distinctive events are well remembered simply because we pay more attention to them, this commonsense analysis may conceal more ... More


How our eyes question the world

Michael F. Land and Benjamin W. Tatler

in Looking and Acting: Vision and eye movements in natural behaviour

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198570943
eISBN:
9780191693878
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570943.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter raises the fundamental question of what drives eye movements. It reports the evidence for bottom-up (i.e. image-driven) and top-down (e.g., task-driven) control. It begins by asking ... More


Eye guidance and visual search

John M. Findlay and Iain D. Gilchrist

in Cognitive Processes in Eye Guidance

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198566816
eISBN:
9780191693618
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566816.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents an account of eye control during visual search. The primary mechanism for selection of the destination for each saccade involves the generation of an oculomotor salience map, in ... More


Incentive Salience in Addiction and Over-Consumption

Michael J. F. Robinson, Terry E. Robinson, and Kent C. Berridge

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Incentive salience (‘wanting’) normally provides an ‘oomph’ that spurs attention to and motivation for objects of desire. But when amplified excessively by brain mesolimbic sensitization, a set of ... More


Children’s media: The role of music and audio features

Sandra L. Calvert

in The Psychology of Music in Multimedia

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199608157
eISBN:
9780191761225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608157.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter explores the effects of music, singing, sound effects, and vocalizations on children’s attention and learning in multimedia experiences in both entertainment and educational contexts. ... More


Processes Basic to Learning and Reinforcement: A New Perspective

Duane M. Rumbaugh and David A. Washburn

in Intelligence of Apes and Other Rational Beings

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300099836
eISBN:
9780300129359
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300099836.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

This chapter focuses on the processes basic to learning and reinforcement. It discusses how some stimuli are naturally salient and how the salience of stimuli can be altered by experience. It ... More


Gender Identity Among U.S. Adults

K. Jill Kiecolt, Michael Hughes, and Hans Momplaisir

in Identities in Everyday Life

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190873066
eISBN:
9780190873097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190873066.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter investigates how gender identity as a social identity fits into people’s lives and how social factors influence it, by drawing on identity theory and social identity theory. Empirical ... More


Authenticity and the Religious Identity

Philip S. Brenner

in Identities in Everyday Life

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780190873066
eISBN:
9780190873097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190873066.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter reports the findings of a study comparing the association of religious behavior with two identity-related concepts, testing their potential as a source of survey response bias in the ... More


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