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The Biology of Positive Emotions and Health

Andrea H. Marques and Esther M. Sternberg

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter reviews existing literature on the biological pathways and mechanisms involved in social interactions and positive emotions and their potential relationship to enhanced health. The first ... More


Demand Characteristics and the Concept of Quasi-Controls 1

Martin T. Orne

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Here, the assumption is that many subjects who volunteer for research participation have a tendency to play the role of the “good subject” (an ironic term) who is both highly sensitive and responsive ... More


Placebos as social constructs to elucidate human behavior

Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter highlights how this book integrates perspectives from medicine and social science to glimpse the many future directions of placebos. It discusses how the chapters build on a broad yet ... More


Introduction: placebos in modern society

Veronica de Jong and Cory S. Harris

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Introducing the major themes of this book, the first chapter briefly summarizes major research accomplishments and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to medical placebos. It then calls attention ... More


Placebo science in medical education

Natasha K. J. Campbell and Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

In the past, unbeknownst to many healers, medical treatments owed most, if not all, of their effectiveness to placebo effects. Currently (and again unbeknownst to many healers), placebo effects still ... More


“Take two and vote in the morning”: reflections on the political placebo effect

Michael Orsini and Paul Saurette

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The use of medical metaphors in politics is a well-honed rhetorical strategy. Sometimes these metaphors help clarify the political world; other times, they hide more truth than they reveal. This ... More


Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Amir Raz and Cory Harris (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This book integrates perspectives from medicine, the social sciences, and beyond to explore the many facets and impacts of placebos in the twenty-first century. The chapter authors build on a broad ... More


Active expectations: insights on the prescription of sub-therapeutic doses of antidepressants for depression

Veronica de Jong and Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter sheds light on the hollows between active drugs and pure placebos in the context of a medical condition of rising global concern: depression. Drawing on the placebo antidepressant ... More


Trust and the placebo effect

Marie Prévost, Anna Zuckerman, and Ian Gold

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Placebo effects operate through the sociocultural beliefs that an injection, or a pill, is a healing agent in itself, independently of its actual constitution. These beliefs are naturally tightly ... More


Looking at placebos through a cultural lens and finding meaning

Daniel E. Moerman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter argues that the “placebo effect” does not exist; placebos do, but they are inert and therefore do not have an effect. Yet often enough, people do respond after placebo administration. ... More


Placebolicious: the many flavors of placebos in Western diets and food cultures

Cory S. Harris and Timothy Johns

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Food and medicine share an inseparable history with essential evolutionary underpinnings. In addition to nutritional, medicinal, or toxic components, the tastes, colors, shapes, names, and labels of ... More


How Expectancies Shape Consumption Experiences

Plassmann Hilke and D. Wager Tor

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In this chapter we review behavioral and neuroscientific studies that investigate how expectations shape our affective experience. Drawing on existing studies in the domain of negative affective ... More


The Virtue of Kindness: Is Psychotherapy Effective for Severe Mental Illness?

Richard P. Bentall

in Doctoring the Mind: Is Our Current Treatment of Mental Illness Really Any Good?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814791486
eISBN:
9780814739143
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814791486.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter identifies the best way of practicing psychotherapy. Faced with a large number of psychotherapy schools, it is tempting to think that the field is even more confused and unsatisfactory ... More


Hedonic value

Dan-Mikael Ellingsen, Siri Leknes, and Morten Kringelbach

in Handbook of Value: Perspectives from Economics, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198716600
eISBN:
9780191807572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716600.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The hedonic processing of pleasure, pain, and displeasure is essential to survival and as such motivates behavior and strongly influences decision-making. Research has shown that the underlying ... More


Antidepressants and the placebo effect

Irving Kirsch

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter explores the evidence supporting the controversial yet convincing conclusion that antidepressant drugs do not work. It begins with research on placebos and the journey toward a career ... More


Justifying deceptive placebos

Bennett Foddy

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Agreeing that placebo treatments are deceptive and arguing that deception is required to maximize patient benefit, this chapter explains that the usual objections do not apply in this special case, ... More


Unpacking the placebo response: insights from ethnographic studies of healing

Laurence J. Kirmayer

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter considers the implications of cross-cultural studies of healing for understanding the nature of placebo responding in biomedical contexts. Placebo responses involve positive therapeutic ... More


Pills in a pretty box: social sources of the placebo effect

Stewart Justman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The placebo effect cannot be reduced to the expectation of a patient in a social vacuum like those engineered in many studies where placebos serve either as controls or as the focus of research. It ... More


Healing words: the placebo effect and journalism at the mind–body boundary

Steve Silberman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter is a personal reflection of “The placebo problem”—an article on the role of the placebo effect in clinical drug trials published in Wire dmagazine in 2009. The chapter recollects the ... More


Suggestion, placebos, and false memories

Melanie K. T. Takarangi and Elizabeth F. Loftus

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Two streams of research—on false memories, and on the placebo effect—have developed largely independently of one another. This chapter discusses the role of suggestion in creating both false memories ... More


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