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Form It! Call a Meeting!: Building a Black Feminist Movement, 1971–1980

Sherie M. Randolph

in Florynce "Flo" Kennedy: The Life of a Black Feminist Radical

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469623917
eISBN:
9781469625119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469623917.003.0010
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines Flo Kennedy’s leadership in creating a black feminist movement to challenge the critical linkages between all forms of oppression, especially racism and sexism. By 1972, while ... More


George Clement Bond: Anthropologist, Africanist, Educator, and Visionary

Rachel Watkins

in The Second Generation of African American Pioneers in Anthropology

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780252042027
eISBN:
9780252050763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5622/illinois/9780252042027.003.0011
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter offers a thematic examination of Bond’s work that captures early innovations, later developments, and connections between his scholarship and that of the previous generation of black ... More


The Making of a Movement

Kenneth Robert Janken

in The Wilmington Ten: Violence, Injustice, and the Rise of Black Politics in the 1970s

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469624839
eISBN:
9781469624853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624839.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

The growth of the movement in Wilmington was stimulated by the presence of organizations dedicated to breaking through the suffocating restrictions of paternalism that the white elite of North ... More


The Rise and Fall of the Desegregation Paradigm

Elizabeth Todd-Breland

in Political Education: Black Politics and Education Reform in Chicago since the 1960s

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781469646589
eISBN:
9781469647173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646589.003.0001
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter analyzes the history of desegregation strategies pursued in Chicago and the processes by which those strategies fell out of favor. The chapter situates these developments within the ... More


Community Control

Elizabeth Todd-Breland

in Political Education: Black Politics and Education Reform in Chicago since the 1960s

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9781469646589
eISBN:
9781469647173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469646589.003.0002
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines the movement for community control that developed in Chicago during the 1960s and 1970s. Students, parents, and community organizations pursued community control of schools ... More


The March of Southern Youth!

Robin D. G. Kelley

in Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625485
eISBN:
9781469625508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625485.003.0011
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter considers the efforts of Southern youths to reestablish the radical movement in Birmingham. Youth-oriented organizations and those they influenced built a movement focusing on civil ... More


In the Heart of the Trouble: Race, Sex, and the ILD

Robin D. G. Kelley

in Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625485
eISBN:
9781469625508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625485.003.0004
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter describes the activities of the Communist-led International Labor Defense (ILD) in Alabama. In particular, it details the ILD's role in a case involving nine black men, who were pulled ... More


The CIO’s in Dixie!

Robin D. G. Kelley

in Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists during the Great Depression

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469625485
eISBN:
9781469625508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469625485.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter discusses the formation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1935, which fanned the flames of anti-Communism while simultaneously creating opportunities for Communists in ... More


Black Power May Be the Only Hope America Has: Black Power, Feminism, and the New Left, 1966–1967

Sherie M. Randolph

in Florynce "Flo" Kennedy: The Life of a Black Feminist Radical

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469623917
eISBN:
9781469625119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469623917.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter focuses on Flo Kennedy’s organizing in the Black Power Conference, the National Conference for New Politics and the National Organization for Women and establishes Kennedy’s significance ... More


Absorbed Her Wisdom and Her Wit: Creating the Women’s Liberation Movement, 1967–1968

Sherie M. Randolph

in Florynce "Flo" Kennedy: The Life of a Black Feminist Radical

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469623917
eISBN:
9781469625119
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469623917.003.0007
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter examines Flo Kennedy’s crucial leadership role within the nascent feminist movement. The New York City chapter of NOW, which was the largest and most active in the organization, included ... More


Free the Wilmington Ten at Once!

Kenneth Robert Janken

in The Wilmington Ten: Violence, Injustice, and the Rise of Black Politics in the 1970s

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9781469624839
eISBN:
9781469624853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469624839.003.0006
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter and the previous one discuss the sophisticated multiyear campaign to free the Wilmington Ten carried out by religious and secular black nationalists, the Communist-affiliated National ... More


The Origin of a New Negro Lawyer, 1898–1924

David A. Canton

in Raymond Pace Alexander: A New Negro Lawyer Fights for Civil Rights in Philadelphia

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2014
ISBN:
9781604734256
eISBN:
9781621036555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781604734256.003.0001
Subject:
History, African-American History

Born on October 13, 1898, Raymond Pace Alexander grew up in Philadelphia, where he witnessed rampant racism. His parents, Hillard Boone Alexander and Virginia Pace Alexander, were part of the first ... More


Afro-American League Convention Speech

Shawn Leigh Alexander

in T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880-1928

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813032320
eISBN:
9780813039084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813032320.003.0013
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents the address Fortune gave before the inaugural convention of the Afro-American League in Chicago on January 25, 1890. The league was the nation's first national civil rights ... More


Are We Brave Men or Cowards?

Shawn Leigh Alexander

in T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880-1928

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813032320
eISBN:
9780813039084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813032320.003.0014
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents an essay written for the short-lived Monthly Review, edited by Charles Alexander. The essay was Fortune's strong condemnation of the race for failing to support the ... More


Failure of the Afro-American People to Organize

Shawn Leigh Alexander

in T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880-1928

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813032320
eISBN:
9780813039084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813032320.003.0018
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents the editorial, “Failure of the Afro-American People to Organize,” where Fortune reflected on the attempts of the race to organize civil rights organizations. He examined his own ... More


The Breath of Agitation Is Life

Shawn Leigh Alexander

in T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880-1928

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813032320
eISBN:
9780813039084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813032320.003.0019
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents the article “The Breath of Agitation Is Life” for the AME Church Review, where Fortune reflected on the work of race organizations and the value of agitation. He believed that ... More


The Chickens Coming Home to Roost: Malcolm X, the Congo, and Modern Black Nationalism

Ira Dworkin

in Congo Love Song: African American Culture and the Crisis of the Colonial State

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9781469632711
eISBN:
9781469632735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469632711.003.0010
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter presents Malcolm X’s travels in Africa during the months leading up to the Stanleyville (Kisangani) crisis of November 1964. Speeches, diaries, correspondence, FBI surveillance reports, ... More


Establishing and Maintaining Institutions

Marne L. Campbell

in Making Black Los Angeles: Class, Gender, and Community, 1850-1917

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469629278
eISBN:
9781469629292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469629278.003.0003
Subject:
History, African-American History

Chapter 3 is the story of the creation of a larger black community in Los Angeles at the turn of the twentieth century. It examines the ways in which a few were able to take full advantage of the ... More


“It’s Time for Black Men …”: The Deacons for Defense and the Mississippi Movement

Akinyele Umoja

in The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9781617039331
eISBN:
9781626740037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781617039331.003.0009
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter focuses on the Deacons for Defense and its place in the civil rights movement in Mississippi. It examines the role of the Deacons as an option for African Americans who perceived a lack ... More


The Politics of Inclusion and the Construction of a New Detroit

Beth Tompkins Bates

in The Making of Black Detroit in the Age of Henry Ford

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780807835647
eISBN:
9781469601571
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/9780807837450_bates.8
Subject:
History, African-American History

This chapter discusses the period of settlement and the emergence of activism by black Detroiters in the early 1920s. During this period, black Detroiters laid the foundation for the infrastructures ... More


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