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Aftermath and Legacy

Douglas A. Irwin

in Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691150321
eISBN:
9781400838394
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150321.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter assesses the aftermath and legacy of the Smoot–Hawley tariff. Smoot–Hawley gave congressional trade policy making a bad name that persists to this day. Those who enacted it promised ... More


European Wine on the Eve of the Railways

James Simpson

in Creating Wine: The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840-1914

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136035
eISBN:
9781400838882
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136035.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter looks at the nature of grape production and wine making on the eve of the railways. The process of creating wine followed a well-determined sequence: grapes were produced in the ... More


Indian Business: An Introduction

Kshama V. Kaushik and Kaushik Dutta

in India Means Business: How the Elephant Earned its Stripes

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198072614
eISBN:
9780199081592
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198072614.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Providing an overview of events, policies, and practices relating to commerce and business prevailing in the country from 1800s to the present, this chapter introduces the reader to factors that ... More


From Domestic to International, 1850–1914

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

The first section of this chapter looks at the internationalization of the London securities market over the period from 1850 to 1914. This was influenced both by transferable securities becoming ... More


Challenges and Opportunities, 1919–1939

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

Although the London Stock Exchange had begun to review its rules and regulations from September 1916 onwards, there was very little planning to meet the problems and competition likely to be faced in ... More


The Changing Market Place Between the Wars

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

As a successor to the previous chapter, which looked at organizational change in the London Stock Exchange between the two World Wars, this one looks at the changing market place over the same ... More


Big Bang

Ranald C. Michie

in The London Stock Exchange: A History

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199242559
eISBN:
9780191596643
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199242550.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History, Financial Economics

This chapter discusses the lead up to the ‘Big Bang’ and its effects––the Big Bang refers to the abolition of fixed commissions and the single capacity on 27 October 1986, both of which had been at ... More


Organizations, Civil Society, and the Roots of Development

Naomi R. Lamoreaux and John Joseph Wallis (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226426365
eISBN:
9780226426532
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426532.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Modern developed societies are rich and secure in large measure because citizens possess the civil right to form organizations and have access for this purpose to a set of legal tools that the ... More


Introduction

William J. Collins and Robert A. Margo

in Enterprising America: Businesses, Banks, and Credit Markets in Historical Perspective

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226261621
eISBN:
9780226261768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261768.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book is a collection of seven original research papers by leading scholars of American economic history that were presented at a conference held at Vanderbilt University in December 2013 and ... More


Introduction

Naomi R. Lamoreaux and John Joseph Wallis

in Organizations, Civil Society, and the Roots of Development

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226426365
eISBN:
9780226426532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426532.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This volume starts from the premise that modern developed societies are rich and secure in large measure because individual citizens possess the civil right to form organizations and because they ... More


The Idea Infrastructure

Thomas O. McGarity

in Freedom to Harm: The Lasting Legacy of the Laissez Faire Revival

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300141245
eISBN:
9780300195217
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300141245.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter provides sketches of several of the most important think tanks and academic organizations that proved highly influential in bringing the Laissez Faire Revival to fruition. With ... More


The Institutionalization of Science in Europe, 1650–1850

George Grantham

in Economic Evolution and Revolution in Historical Time

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804771856
eISBN:
9780804777629
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804771856.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter discusses the economic exploitation of natural resources that fueled the second industrial revolution, focusing on the rise of institutionalized science, which became central to Western ... More


The Right to Associate and the Rights of Associations: Civil-Society Organizations in Prussia, 1794–1908

Richard Brooks and Timothy W. Guinnane

in Organizations, Civil Society, and the Roots of Development

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226426365
eISBN:
9780226426532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426532.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Civil society plays a central role in democratic regimes. Repressive governments may try to suppress or limit civil society, but so may relatively democratic societies. Historically, this suppression ... More


Rise of the Corporation Nation

Robert E. Wright

in Founding Choices: American Economic Policy in the 1790s

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226384740
eISBN:
9780226384764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226384764.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter highlights the dramatic rise in the chartering of business corporations during 1790. Only eight such corporations had been chartered in the long colonial era, and another twenty-one ... More


Could Positive Information Shift National-Level Beliefs?

Alexandra Guisinger

in American Opinion on Trade: Preferences without Politics

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
August 2017
ISBN:
9780190651824
eISBN:
9780190651862
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190651824.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Chapter 8 asks whether changing the types of information provided to voters would sufficiently move public opinion to make such a strategy viable for political actors. Three original survey ... More


Nutrition

Marina Sorrentino

in Measuring Wellbeing: A History of Italian Living Standards

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780199944590
eISBN:
9780190218850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199944590.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

The chapter focuses on how Italy’s economic growth enabled the spread of improvements in the diet of the Italian population. According to mid-nineteenth-century observers, nourishment was likely to ... More


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