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Optimization

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The ‘hits’ or ‘leads’ found during the screening stage that point to conditions that may be conducive to crystallization, need to be optimized in order to attain high quality crystals. This chapter ... More


Optimization

Sergey N. Dorogovtsev

in Lectures on Complex Networks

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199548927
eISBN:
9780191720574
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548927.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter demonstrates how a universal requirement for optimality leads to the complex structural organization of a network. It discusses a long-lasting criticism of the preferential concept and ... More


Ab initio structure solution

Erich H. Kisi and Christopher J. Howard

in Applications of Neutron Powder Diffraction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780198515944
eISBN:
9780191705663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515944.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes general approaches to the ab initio solution of crystal structures from X-ray or neutron powder diffraction data. The steps in the process, unit cell determination and ... More


THEORY OF RANDOM SOLID STATES

M. Mézard

in Stealing the Gold: A celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528531
eISBN:
9780191713415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528531.003.0017
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter is a non-technical, elementary introduction to the theory of glassy phases and their ubiquity. The aim is to provide a guide and some kind of coherent view to the various topics that ... More


NMR Imaging of Materials

Bernhard Blumich

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526766
eISBN:
9780191709524
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526766.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of materials is a field of increasing importance. Applications range from fundamental science such as the characterisation of fluid transport in porous rocks, ... More


Bridges: Inference and the Monte Carlo method

Marc Mézard and Andrea Montanari

in Information, Physics, and Computation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570837
eISBN:
9780191718755
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570837.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The mathematical structure highlighted in this chapter by the factor graph representation is the locality of probabilistic dependencies between variables. Locality also emerges in many problems of ... More


Polarimetric interferometry

S. R. Cloude

in Polarisation: Applications in Remote Sensing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199569731
eISBN:
9780191721908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569731.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

This chapter deals with the formal fusion of polarisation with interferometry. It develops an approach based on a general coherency matrix formulation, which scales naturally to multiple baselines, ... More


Optimization Problems

Hidetoshi Nishimori

in Statistical Physics of Spin Glasses and Information Processing: An Introduction

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509417
eISBN:
9780191709081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509417.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

A decision-making problem is often formulated as the minimization or maximization of a multivariable function, an optimization problem. This chapter shows that the methods of statistical mechanics ... More


Global optimization strategies

Kenneth Shankland and William I. F. David

in Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199205530
eISBN:
9780191718076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199205530.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Global optimisation methods that involve the assessment of multiple trial crystal structures against measured diffraction data offer a powerful alternative to Direct methods of structure solution. ... More


Calculation of Physical Properties Using the OLCAO Method

Wai-yim Ching and Paul Rulis

in Electronic Structure Methods for Complex Materials: The orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199575800
eISBN:
9780191740992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575800.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter lists many of the common physical properties that can be easily calculated using the OLCAO method discussed in Chapter 3. The most fundamental quantities are the band structures, density ... More


A Guide to 3D DD Simulations

Ladislas Kubin

in Dislocations, Mesoscale Simulations and Plastic Flow

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780198525011
eISBN:
9780191756238
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525011.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses how the critical problems faced by dislocation dynamics simulations are solved. Available references to the technical bases of current nodal and lattice-based simulation codes ... More


The Nature of Computation

Cristopher Moore and Stephan Mertens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199233212
eISBN:
9780191775079
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233212.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Computational complexity is one of the most beautiful fields of modern mathematics, and it is increasingly relevant to other sciences ranging from physics to biology. However, this beauty is often ... More


Optimization and Approximation

Cristopher Moore and Stephan Mertens

in The Nature of Computation

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199233212
eISBN:
9780191775079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233212.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter focuses on the relationships between decision problems and their optimisation versions. It shows that, for most problems, the optimal solution can be realised in polynomial time if and ... More


Antecedents

Jennifer Coopersmith

in The Lazy Universe: An Introduction to the Principle of Least Action

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198743040
eISBN:
9780191802966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198743040.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Early ideas about optimization principles were brought in by an eclectic group of extraordinary thinkers: the Ancients (Hero, and Princess Dido), Fermat with his Principle of Least Time, the ... More


Models of network formation

Mark Newman

in Networks

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805090
eISBN:
9780191843235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805090.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes models of the growth or formation of networks, with a particular focus on preferential attachment models. It starts with a discussion of the classic preferential attachment ... More


What does it mean to be me?

Andrew Briggs, Hans Halvorson, and Andrew Steane

in It Keeps Me Seeking: The Invitation from Science, Philosophy and Religion

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198808282
eISBN:
9780191866944
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198808282.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The chapter poses questions about personhood, and explores them through some philosophy, extended examples from machine learning and artificial intelligence, and religious reflection. Parfit’s ... More


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