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Genotypic Specificity of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For ongoing coevolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis through the agents of natural selection, there must be genetic variation within populations for both host and endophyte. The breeding systems ... More


Human Nature

Erika Lorraine Milam

in Creatures of Cain

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691181882
eISBN:
9780691185095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691181882.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter looks at the scientific revelations produced by Jane Goodall's studies on great apes and the effects these studies had on the contentious field of sociobiology. When Jane Goodall and ... More


Geographic variation in orangutan behavior and biology: Its functional interpretation and its mechanistic basis

Carel P. van Schaik, Andrew J. Marshall, and Serge A. Wich

in Orangutans: Geographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199213276
eISBN:
9780191707568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.003.0024
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Extensive field data are available for three (out of four) Pongo taxa: the Sumatran P. abelii and the Bornean P. pygmaeus wurmbii of west and central Kalimantan and P. p. morio of east Kalimantan and ... More


Evolutionary Thermal Biology

Michael J. Angilletta

in Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198570875
eISBN:
9780191718748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570875.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Organisms use behavioural, physiological, and life-historical strategies to cope with changes in temperature over space and time. These strategies can be represented as thermal reaction norms, which ... More


From Skills to Norms

Kim Sterelny

in The Evolved Apprentice: How Evolution Made Humans Unique

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262016797
eISBN:
9780262302814
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016797.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter has three objectives. First, it critiques moral nativism, especially the version that is modelled on Chomsky’s linguistic nativism, showing that moral nativists massively understate the ... More


Has Something Important Happened to Scientific Ethics?

Barbara K. Redman

in Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine: Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780262019811
eISBN:
9780262317757
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019811.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Does the persistence of research misconduct cases represent a deterioration of ethical standards or a decline in the ability of the scientific community to self-regulate? Are scientific professional ... More


Plasticity

Andrew P. Hendry

in Eco-evolutionary Dynamics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691145433
eISBN:
9781400883080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145433.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter details the nature of plasticity and how it can be studied, focusing in particular on the “reaction norm” approach. The subsequent key questions first evaluate whether or not plasticity ... More


Structure: How Genotypes, Traits, Strategies, and Environment Interact

Douglas W. Morris and Per Lundberg

in Pillars of Evolution: Fundamental principles of the eco-evolutionary process

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780198568797
eISBN:
9780191774690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568797.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Our ability to predict the dynamics of evolution depends critically on its underlying genetic and environmental structure. The structure is defined by the ways that traits map onto fitness. The ... More


Human Cooperation among Kin and Close Associates May Require Enforcement of Norms by Third Parties

Sarah Mathew, Robert Boyd, and Matthijs Van Veelen

in Cultural Evolution: Society, Technology, Language, and Religion

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262019750
eISBN:
9780262318297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019750.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

While our capacity for large-scale cooperation is striking, humans also cooperate with kin and close associates much more than most other vertebrates. Existing theories do not satisfactorily explain ... More


Like Me: A Homophily-Based Account of Human Culture

Daniel B. M. Haun and Harriet Over

in Cultural Evolution: Society, Technology, Language, and Religion

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262019750
eISBN:
9780262318297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019750.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter presents a homophily-based account of human social structure and cultural transmission, wherein a tendency to favor similar others (homophily) is a key driving force in creating ... More


Cultural Evolution of the Structure of Human Groups

Fiona M. Jordan, Carel van Schaik, Pieter François, Herbert Gintis, Daniel B. M. Haun, Daniel J. Hruschka, Marco A. Janssen, James A. Kitts, Laurent Lehmann, Sarah Mathew, Peter J. Richerson, Peter Turchin, and Polly Wiessner

in Cultural Evolution: Society, Technology, Language, and Religion

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780262019750
eISBN:
9780262318297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262019750.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Small-scale human societies are a leap in size and complexity from those of our primate ancestors. We propose that the behavioral predispositions which allowed the evolution of small-scale societies ... More


Incorporating ecosystem services in decisions

Emily McKenzie, Frances Irwin, Janet Ranganathan, Craig Hanson, Carolyn Kousky, Karen Bennett, Susan Ruffo, Marc Conte, James Salzman, and Jouni Paavola

in Natural Capital: Theory and Practice of Mapping Ecosystem Services

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199588992
eISBN:
9780191774638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588992.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Ecology

While there are clear and compelling opportunities for inculcating nature’s value into public and private decision-making, the reality is that ecosystem services are still far from being ... More


The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Mark A. Bedau and Emily C. Parke (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

Teams of scientists around the world are racing to create protocells—microscopic, self-organizing entities that spontaneously assemble from simple organic and inorganic materials. The creation of ... More


The Evolution of Innovation-Enhancing Institutions

Joseph Henrich

in Innovation in Cultural Systems: Contributions from Evolutionary Anthropology

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262013338
eISBN:
9780262259101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262013338.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter uses an integrated approach to decision making and cultural evolution to analyze the development of population-level differences in innovativeness. It outlines research showing how ... More


The quantitative genetics of sex determination

Leo W. Beukeboom and Nicolas Perrin

in The Evolution of Sex Determination

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199657148
eISBN:
9780191748103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199657148.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter approaches sex determination from a quantitative genetics perspective. Although inheritance of sexes is often Mendelian, sex is better described as a threshold trait, underlain by a ... More


Organism and Environment: Ecological Development, Niche Construction, and Adaptation

Sonia E. Sultan

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199587070
eISBN:
9780191814013
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587070.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Developmental Biology

The biologically intimate, causally reciprocal relationship between organisms and their environments shapes individual adaptation, ecological communities, and selective evolution. The book ... More


Evolution and Development

Peter Gluckman, Alan Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, and Mark Hanson

in Principles of Evolutionary Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199663927
eISBN:
9780191823206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199663927.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The triad of genes, development, and environment is responsible for the adult phenotype of an individual organism. Developmental plasticity is the capacity to adjust the phenotype arising from a ... More


Changing conservation behaviors

Susan K. Jacobson, Mallory D. McDuff, and Martha C. Monroe

in Conservation Education and Outreach Techniques

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198716686
eISBN:
9780191797477
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716686.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The road to behavior change is paved with many theories. The disciplines of education, sociology, and psychology offer a number of ideas about human behavior that can be used to design programs that ... More


Evolutionary genetics of migration

Hugh Dingle

in Migration: The Biology of Life on the Move

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780199640386
eISBN:
9780191780714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640386.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the genetic bases for migration and its evolution. Classic techniques such as common garden experiments and hybrid performance still have much to reveal, but modern molecular ... More


Personality and behavioral syndromes in insects and spiders

Carl N. Keiser, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Colin M. Wright, Gregory T. Chism, and Jonathan N. Pruitt

in Insect Behavior: From Mechanisms to Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198797500
eISBN:
9780191838842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797500.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The field of animal behavior has experienced a surge of studies focusing on functional differences among individuals in their behavioral tendencies (‘animal personalities’) and the relationships ... More


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