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Ineluctable Risks: Illness and Injury

Eric Rakowski

in Equal Justice

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198240792
eISBN:
9780191680274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198240792.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Although option luck affects the size of people's holdings and their ability to cope with calamity, brute luck is often the more important arbiter of people's material and psychological well-being. ... More


The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Cailin O'Connor

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The central aim of this book is to explore the ways in which social categories—especially gender, but also categories like race and religion—interact with and contribute to social solutions to ... More


Conclusion

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

In this chapter, I briefly summarize the main messages of the book. Gender can emerge to solve coordination problems. This sets the stage for the emergence of inequitable roles. Social categories, ... More


Introduction *: What’s Wrong with Health Inequalities?

Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst, Sara H. Marchand, Ole F. Norheim, and Daniel Wikler

in Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199931392
eISBN:
9780199345731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931392.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Essays in this book address a wide range of ethical issues that bear on health inequalities. This introduction identifies these issues and discusses them in relation to broader notions of ... More


Rethinking the Moral Significance of Micro-Inequities: The Case of Women in Philosophy

Samantha Brennan

in Women in Philosophy: What Needs to Change?

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199325603
eISBN:
9780199369317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199325603.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Micro-inequities are small, unjust inequalities often pointed to as part of the larger story about the unequal place of women in the workforce. This paper sets out to examine micro-inequities in the ... More


Health Inequality, Health Inequity, and Health Spending

Anthony B. Atkinson

in Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199931392
eISBN:
9780199345731
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199931392.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Health inequalities are at the forefront of public debate in many countries, including the United States and the European Union. Governments have in recent years set in place programmes to tackle ... More


Evolution and Revolution

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter looks at a cluster of topics centered on the question: what can be done about inequitable conventions of resource division between social categories? First, the chapter outlines which ... More


Social Categories, Coordination, and Inequity

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter shows why social categories provide solutions to certain coordination problems. It begins with a description of what social categories are and how they function in human groups. The ... More


Cultural Evolution with Social Categories

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter looks at evolutionary models capable of representing the emergence of conventions between actors in different social groups. From a starting point of uncoordinated behavior, groups move ... More


The Evolution of Gender

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter does two things. The first is to use the evolutionary framework developed to explain a particular feature of the gendered division of labor—that some aspects of it seem conventional, and ... More


The Cultural Red Queen and the Cultural Red King

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

When cultural groups evolve, or adapt, at different rates, or more generally show asymmetric levels of reactivity towards each other, we can observe a cultural Red King effect. This occurs when a ... More


Discrimination and Homophily

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

The goal of this chapter is to use the framework developed thus far in the book to address the question: how do discriminatory conventions and norms influence patterns of interaction? In particular, ... More


The Evolution of Household Bargaining

Cailin O'Connor

in The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198789970
eISBN:
9780191880124
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789970.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter first presents an explicitly evolutionary model of the emergence of coordination in modern households. The chapter shows why certain conditions might favor market labor for one gender ... More


Why an Evolutionary Perspective is Critical to Understanding Moral Behavior in Humans

Sarah F. Brosnan

in Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199669776
eISBN:
9780191778650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669776.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

It is sometimes argued that moral behavior and concern for others set humans apart from other species. Yet other species share some of these behaviors. Studying them helps us to understand the ... More


The Evolution of Justice

Sarah Brosnan

in Justice

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780190631741
eISBN:
9780190631789
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190631741.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Where does the human sense of justice come from? An emerging view in the sciences is that the biological foundation of humans’ systems of justice and fairness can be found in the behaviors of other ... More


The United Kingdom Context

Anne Slowther

in Fair Resource Allocation and Rationing at the Bedside

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199989447
eISBN:
9780190207489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199989447.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The UK health care system has at its core a universal, publicly funded National Health Service (NHS). Historically the UK has spent less on health care than many other countries. Changes to the ... More


The Moral Status of Micro-Inequities: In Favor of Institutional Solutions

Samantha Brennan

in Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198766179
eISBN:
9780191820748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198766179.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

An emerging story about the persistence of workplace inequality—in the absence of formal barriers to entry and progress for women, minorities, and disabled persons—looks to the twin causes of ... More


Unequal by Design: Health Care, Distributive Justice, and the American Political Process

Bruce C. Vladeck and Eliot Fishman

in Medicine and Social Justice: Essays on the Distribution of Health Care

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199744206
eISBN:
9780190267551
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199744206.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter focuses on the impact of politics on health care and distributive justice in the United States. More specifically, it argues that health inequities in the United States arise from the ... More


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