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Medical ‘manners’ on trial

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0040
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1997 commentary on so-called medical ‘manners’. It argues that as the power of interventions increase, the moral strength of medicine may come to rely on its ‘professional ... More


Epilogue

Milena D. Bister

in Human Tissue Research: A European perspective on the ethical and legal challenges

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199587551
eISBN:
9780191725630
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199587551.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This concluding chapter briefly highlights the main results of the preceding chapters and poses some vital questions that are still unanswered in the field of human tissue research: How can the ... More


Towards the emancipation of patients: Patients' experiences and the patient movement

Charlotte Williamson

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781847427458
eISBN:
9781447304043
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781847427458.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Despite a policy focus on involving patients in healthcare and increasing patient autonomy, much covert coercion of patients takes place in everyday healthcare. This book examines how the patient ... More


The individual and the social level in public health

Michael P Kelly

in Evidence-based Public Health: Effectiveness and efficiency

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199563623
eISBN:
9780191722554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563623.003.029
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter identifies two distinct analytic levels — the ‘individual’ and the ‘social’ — for defining and explaining individual disease outcomes and population patterns of health and disease. It ... More


The problem-based learning process

Diana Dolmans and Henk Schmidt

in Lessons from Problem-based Learning

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199583447
eISBN:
9780191594519
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583447.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter discusses the problem-based learning process. Today, many medical schools all over the world have implemented PBL. The process goes as follows: Students in PBL groups discuss problems ... More


Capacity building, competencies, and standards

Paul White and Jeff French

in Social Marketing and Public Health: Theory and practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199550692
eISBN:
9780191720413
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550692.003.19
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the skill base for individual and organizational competencies in social marketing. It highlights the issues contributing to the development of standards for social marketing; ... More


The Potential for Health

Kenneth C. Calman

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192629449
eISBN:
9780191723674
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192629449.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book has two purposes. First, it aims to identify key issues in health and health care, and, second, it aims to identify ways in which improvements in both might occur. Its title recognises that ... More


The Limits of Consent: A socio-ethical approach to human subject research in medicine

Oonagh Corrigan, John McMillan, Kathleen Liddell, Martin Richards, and Charles Weijer (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231461
eISBN:
9780191723858
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231461.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Since its inception as an international requirement to protect patients and healthy volunteers taking part in medical research, informed consent has become the primary consideration in research ... More


Behavior

Marc J. Roberts, William Hsiao, Peter Berman, and Michael R. Reich

in Getting Health Reform Right: A Guide to Improving Performance and Equity

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195371505
eISBN:
9780199863839
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371505.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes methods for changing individual behavior through population-based interventions. The main concern is how behavior can be used to improve health-system performance and promote ... More


Is there an obligation to participate in medical research? 1

Stephen John

in The Limits of Consent: A socio-ethical approach to human subject research in medicine

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199231461
eISBN:
9780191723858
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231461.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter argues that proper awareness of the benefits generated by medical research leads to the conclusion that within a society such as the UK, where everyone has a guarantee of future access ... More


Measurement and design for life course studies of individual differences and development

Jane Costello and Adrian Angold

in Epidemiological Methods in Life Course Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198528487
eISBN:
9780191723940
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528487.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews methods for studying individual differences across the life course. It starts from the position that even when a life course study is basically observational or descriptive, ... More


Ecological Studies

Thomas D. Koepsell and Noel S. Weiss

in Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195150780
eISBN:
9780199865161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150780.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses ecological studies, which examine exposure-disease associations among groups of people. In other words, they seek to determine how the frequency of exposure in each of several ... More


Neighborhoods and Health: An Overview

Sally Macintyre and Anne Ellaway

in Neighborhoods and Health

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195138382
eISBN:
9780199865505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138382.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an overview of research on neighborhoods and health. Interest in the effects of the local environment on human health began some 2,500 years ago and reached its peak during the ... More


Putting Study Findings to Use

J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson

in Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195145250
eISBN:
9780199864775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exercises in this section deal with the questions that should be asked before deciding to apply the results of epidemiological studies in practice, whether in individual health care or in ... More


The UN response to the HIV pandemic

Eric van Praag, Karl L Dehne, and Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli

in The HIV Pandemic: Local and Global Implications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199237401
eISBN:
9780191723957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237401.003.0040
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter examines the historical aspects of the AIDS policy debate within the UN family. It first shows that international AIDS policy has evolved, as had the public health policies earlier on, ... More


Donor, lender and research agencies’ response to the HIV crisis

Chris Simms

in The HIV Pandemic: Local and Global Implications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199237401
eISBN:
9780191723957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237401.003.0041
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The international donor community has long held that governments' failure to confront the HIV pandemic and take clear steps aimed at its prevention and control, are key to understanding the severity ... More


Strategies of prevention: the individual and the population: (reprinted from first edition) *

G. Rose

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0037
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews two strategies for preventing coronary heart disease. The individual or clinical approach seeks to identify and help those in whom an amalgam of genetic susceptibility and ... More


Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender/Transsexual Individuals

Emilia Lombardi and Talia Bettcher

in Social Injustice and Public Health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195171853
eISBN:
9780199865352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171853.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter describes the impact of social injustice on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/ transsexual individuals, including the impact of violence, HIV/AIDS, mental health and ... More


China: Increasing Health Gaps in a Transitional Economy

YUANLI LIU, KEQIN RAO, TIMOTHY EVANS, YUDE CHEN, and WILLIAM C. HSIAO

in Challenging Inequities in Health: From Ethics to Action

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137408
eISBN:
9780199863983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137408.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

China's outstanding health achievements before the 1980s and rapid economic growth over the past decade are well documented. Less well known, however, is the impact of the transition from a socialist ... More


Do cancers cluster?

F. E. Alexander and P. Boyle

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the issue of cancer clustering with particular reference to childhood leukaemia. Clustering is a poorly defined concept in medical literature. A distinction must be made ... More


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