*M. Bordag, G. L. Klimchitskaya, U. Mohideen, and V. M. Mostepanenko*

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780199238743
- eISBN:
- 9780191716461
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.003.0019
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter starts chronologically with the first measurement, by means of a torsion pendulum, in the recent phase of Casimir force experiments. Then the main breakthroughs in the measurement of the ...
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This chapter starts chronologically with the first measurement, by means of a torsion pendulum, in the recent phase of Casimir force experiments. Then the main breakthroughs in the measurement of the Casimir force between metallic surfaces are presented. One of them was the first demonstration of corrections to the Casimir force due to the nonzero skin depth and surface roughness by means of an atomic force microscope. Another breakthrough was a series of precise indirect measurements of the Casimir pressure by means of a micromechanical torsional oscillator. These measurements allowed a definitive choice between different theoretical approaches to the thermal Casimir force for real metal surfaces. Many other experiments performed in the last few years are also presented, specifically one measurement using the configuration of two parallel plates. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of proposed experiments using metallic surfaces.Less

This chapter starts chronologically with the first measurement, by means of a torsion pendulum, in the recent phase of Casimir force experiments. Then the main breakthroughs in the measurement of the Casimir force between metallic surfaces are presented. One of them was the first demonstration of corrections to the Casimir force due to the nonzero skin depth and surface roughness by means of an atomic force microscope. Another breakthrough was a series of precise indirect measurements of the Casimir pressure by means of a micromechanical torsional oscillator. These measurements allowed a definitive choice between different theoretical approaches to the thermal Casimir force for real metal surfaces. Many other experiments performed in the last few years are also presented, specifically one measurement using the configuration of two parallel plates. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of proposed experiments using metallic surfaces.

*Heinz-Peter Breuer and Francesco Petruccione*

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199213900
- eISBN:
- 9780191706349
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213900.003.02
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter develops the fundamental notions and concepts of the probabilistic and statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. It begins with a brief review of the mathematical structure given ...
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This chapter develops the fundamental notions and concepts of the probabilistic and statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. It begins with a brief review of the mathematical structure given by a Hilbert space of state vectors and an algebra of observables represented by selfadjoint operators. Special emphasis is laid on the connection between the spectral representation of a selfadjoint operator and a corresponding random variable that describes the possible measurement outcomes. The chapter further introduces the concepts of a composite quantum system, of the reduced density matrix, and of entangled quantum states. A section on quantum entropies is included, as well as the mathematical formulation of the generalized theory of quantum measurements in terms of completely positive quantum operations and effects.Less

This chapter develops the fundamental notions and concepts of the probabilistic and statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. It begins with a brief review of the mathematical structure given by a Hilbert space of state vectors and an algebra of observables represented by selfadjoint operators. Special emphasis is laid on the connection between the spectral representation of a selfadjoint operator and a corresponding random variable that describes the possible measurement outcomes. The chapter further introduces the concepts of a composite quantum system, of the reduced density matrix, and of entangled quantum states. A section on quantum entropies is included, as well as the mathematical formulation of the generalized theory of quantum measurements in terms of completely positive quantum operations and effects.