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Metals in the Environment as Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases: Gaps and Opportunities

M. Leigh Ackland, Julia Bornhorst, George V. Dedoussis, Rodney R. Dietert, Jerome O. Nriagu, Jozef M. Pacyna, and John M. Pettifor

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

By reducing immune function, trace metal deficiencies may substantially contribute to the global burden of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria. Human activities may be contributing to trace metal ... More


Impact of Metals on Immune Response and Tolerance, and Modulation of Metal Metabolism during Infection

Günter Weiss

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Several metals play important roles in host cell and microbial metabolism because they form a part of central enzymes that are essential, for example, for DNA synthesis, cellular respiration, and key ... More


Immunologic Factors

Eric A. Engels and Allan Hildesheim

in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780190238667
eISBN:
9780190238698
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0025
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

The immune response is a highly complex system that has developed to protect individuals from morbidity and mortality induced by exogenous exposures, including infections. As summarized in this ... More


Introduction to the Principles of Immunology

Michael B. A. Oldstone

in Viruses, Plagues, and History: Past, Present, and Future

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780190056780
eISBN:
9780197523292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190056780.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses how the human immune system combats viruses, either by spontaneously eliminating infections or by becoming stimulated via vaccination to prevent viral diseases. The proteins in ... More


HIV vaccines: development and future use

José Esparza, Marie-Louise Chang, and Helene D Gayle

in The HIV Pandemic: Local and Global Implications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199237401
eISBN:
9780191723957
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199237401.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A safe, effective, and accessible preventive vaccine represents the best long-term hope for the control of the HIV pandemic. The development of an HIV vaccine, however, has faced a number of ... More


Practical Considerations

Paul A. Offit and Charlotte A. Moser

in Vaccines and Your Child: Separating Fact from Fiction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153072
eISBN:
9780231526715
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153072.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter deals with practical considerations regarding vaccines. Some people, who are unable to produce an adequate immune response, cannot be vaccinated. These people fall into four groups: ... More


The Mystery of Immunity

Gavin Weightman

in The Great Inoculator: The Untold Story of Daniel Sutton and his Medical Revolution

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780300241440
eISBN:
9780300256314
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300241440.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter assesses the mystery of immunity. Today, Edward Jenner is often referred to as the 'father of immunology'. But really, Jenner had no more claim to that title than Lady Mary Wortley ... More


Trace Metals in Host–Microbe Interactions: The Microbe Perspective

Jennifer S. Cavet, Robert D. Perry, Sascha Brunke, K. Heran Darwin, Carol A. Fierke, James A. Imlay, Michael E. P. Murphy, Anthony B. Schryvers, Dennis J. Thiele, and Jeffrey N. Weiser

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Microbes must acquire metals for metabolic processes, with nearly a half of all enzymes requiring a metal cofactor for function, yet microbes can be poisoned by metals. The host innate immune ... More


Impact of Lifestyle on Metal Exposure, Homeostasis, and Associated Diseases

George V. Dedoussis

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Unhealthy lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, long working hours, reduced sleep, physical inactivity, obesogenic diets) and psychological stress contribute to ... More


General

Paul A. Offit and Charlotte A. Moser

in Vaccines and Your Child: Separating Fact from Fiction

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153072
eISBN:
9780231526715
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153072.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter describes the process of vaccine manufacturing. Vaccine manufacture starts with creating the strains of a virus, which are then licensed to a pharmaceutical company in order to determine ... More


Hantavirus

Michael B. A. Oldstone

in Viruses, Plagues, and History: Past, Present, and Future

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780190056780
eISBN:
9780197523292
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190056780.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology

This chapter looks at hantavirus in detail. Hantaviruses are among the infectious agents currently found in the United States with the potential of causing plagues. Generally, symptoms are fever, ... More


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